A Mathematically-Integrated Chart Of The Known And An Unknown universe

TodayConstruction of this horizontally-scrolled version of the chart began in April 2016
to follow more easily the progression of 202 doublings of each Planck-based unit.
Project/start: From the Planck Scale to the size of the Universe, December 2011
Big Board-little universe|Contact|Charts|Ethics|Homepage|Quiet Expansion|Top Ten



Notations 1 to 6 of 200+

Small-scale Universe 1-67

Right ArrowThe background story (opens new window or tab)
Measurement Base Units___0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Planck Time 5.391 16(13)×10-44 (s) 1.07823×10−43 (s) 2.15646×10−43 (s) 4.31292×10−43 (s) 8.62585×10−43 (s) 1.72517×10−42 (s) 3.450342×10−42 (s)
Planck.Length 1.616229(38)×10-35.(m) 3.232458×10-35.(m) 6.464916×10-35.(m) 1.292983×10-34.(m) 2.585966×10-34.(m) 5.171932×10-34.(m) 1.034304×10-33m
Planck.Mass 2.176.470(51)×10-8.(kg) 4.35294×10-8.(kg) 8.70588×10-8.(kg) 1.741176×10-7 (kg) 3.482352×10-7.(kg) 6.964704×10-7.(kg) 1.392941×10-6.(kg)
Planck.Charge 1.875 545.956(41)×10-18 (C) 3.75109×10-18 (C) 7.50218×10-18 (C) 1.50043×10-17 (C) 3.00087×10-17.(C) 6.0017×10-17.(C) 1.200349×10-16.(C)
Planck.Temp1 1.416.808(33)×1032 (K) 4.4084×10-27 (K)1 8.816×10-27 (K) 1.763×10-26 (K) 3.526×10-26 (K) 7.053×10-26 (K) 1.4106×10-25 (K)
The Base-2 Notations(×2) 0/1 1/1 2 4 8 16
Base-8 Scaling Vertices (×8) 1 8 64 512 4096 32768
Speed of light ratio: 299,792,437.99 m/sec 299,792,994.073 299,792,994.07362 299,768,509.931 299,792,613.83 299,792,613.837 299,792,613.83
Ontology / Number ____Forms: Plato’s Eidos Sphere-Stack Automorphics Pointfree Geometries Langlands I
Background Introduction: This is page 1 of 34.

Here, side-by-side, all 34 pages can be horizontally-scrolled as a single page. It is the entire model of a highly-integrated universe view which we initially called, Big Board – little universe. The first draft of a vertically-scrolled chart was completed in February 2015. The very first chart based on just the Planck Length was done in December 2011.
Here we continue the process of encapsulating everything, everywhere in the universe, throughout all time. Though this chart suggests that space-time-mass-energy-temperature are necessarily and inextricably related, the challenge of this model is to demonstrate how this is so.
This work is quite at odds with dominant theory, big bang cosmology (bbc), yet we believe every formula and relation defined and in some manner validated within the bbc history can also be found within our emerging model and view of the universe. To broaden its perspective, we will attempt to examine transitions between the finite-infinite, especially the role of Euler’s equation, space, time, pi and light, projective geometries, bifurcation theory, dimensionless constants, and number theory.
Footnote [1] The only footnote on this panel is for Planck Temperature.
A Key concept: Planck Temperature has been moved to the top of the chart. One of the working assumptions of the project is that everything starts most simply and complexity comes later, and that space-and-time are finite, discrete, derivative and quantized, and that temperature is also derivative of space/time and matter/charge. That logic obviously requires further discussion. Also, a bit like Zeno’s paradox, though infinitesimal, this temperature will never reach absolute zero Kelvin.
This chart is still just a place holder, a rough, working draft. There are many functions that are not computing. The correspondence between Planck Length and Planck temperature will be an open question for a long time. More than just exponentiation, another factor will eventually be introduced to adjust this line of numbers.
Key questions: What mathematics are at work? The simple answer is, “All mathematics are at work here. No formula is exempt. And, eventually every formula will be in some way tied back to this model.” Notwithstanding, here is our first, introductory post about numbers and our first about key equations.
Speed of Light (meters/second): The simple calculation, divide Planck Length by Planck Time, renders 299,792,437.991081696 km/second. Using just the units displayed above (Notation #0: 1.616229/5.39116), the result is 299,792,437.99 m/sec and Notation #1: 299,792,994.074. These simple results, first posted on May 3, 2016, will be tweaked. Of course, the result of experimental measurement is 299,792,458 meters/second in a vacuum. Within Notation #73, the Planck Length divided by Planck time equals 299,764,336.21. That appears to be the slowest calculation. The fastest appears to be within the 16th notation: 299,982,157 meters/second. The span is just 217,820 or less than .1% of the laboratory-measured speed of light.
There is much more to come!
A quiet expansion of the universe within just over 200 notations or doublings. Three questions open up this simple mathematical model of the universe:
1. Could this model, a Quiet Expansion (QE) absorb most of the data within the big bang cosmology? If the QE indexes everything, everywhere, for all time, it surely can be applied to the first four epochs (the most-key elements) of the big bang comsology (bbc). These epochs within the QE model amount to less than a trillionth-of-a-trillionth of a second. The bbc ignores Planck charge and it postulates, not just unique events in time, but so extreme, each would necessarily have to be the ultimate definition of reality.
The challenge. Part of our challenge is to redefine the first four epochs of the big bang cosmology. Our goal is to map as much as possible within the bbc to QE using the most simple tools (line 11 above, Ontology/Number) within logic, mathematics, physics, and philosophy to re-establish a continuity and symmetry with all our knowledge that follows. We confess to our disdain for the inherent nihilism of bbc and that we would welcome a time when the bbc becomes an historic artifact, From Lemaître to Hawking, and science seriously adopts the Planck base units as the boundary conditions and known parameters of the universe.


2. The Qualitative.

The QE model establishes a simple continuity equation from the first moment in time through the Age of the Universe (this day and this moment). These simple mathematical constructions began as geometrical constructions and symmetry groups. Mathematically the constructions become quite dynamic and some harmonic. It seems that continuity, symmetry and harmony could be the foundations for the qualitative, a natural value equation. These three forms and functions, order/continuity, relations/symmetries, and dynamics/harmonies, just may contain the many flavors of ethics, morals, and values. The experts can decide.


3. How can we more fully understand the finite-infinite relation?

Here the finite-infinite relation is described as a study of perfection, moments of perfection, and the geometries and mathematics of imperfection. If the infinite is fundamentally defined as order-continuity, relations-symmetry, and dynamics-harmony, the finite is an analogue within discrete units of space and time currently understood as a result of, and known today through, the Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC) and the Standard Model Lagrangian.


Consider the four epochs in question:

Planck Epoch, renamed Planck Moment: The finite-infinite relation most intimately defines the first notation and is necessarily within all notations building from the first. An infinitesimal duration, it is the beginning that creates space and time and then extends within space and time much like the birthing process. As of today, the Planck base units are our simplest-deepest-best description of this moment. More…


Grand Unification and the Electroweak Epochs renamed Processes: Based on the fact that entities and things require a necessary amount of space that only becomes available from the 67th notation and above, it is guessed that the first 60 to 66 notations are foundational to all notations. Using the analogy of the birthing process, all the forms-and-functions, then processes-and-procedures, and then relations-and-systems prior to the actual birthing event, are the first 60 or so notations. Here that finite-infinite relation creates the foundational order, the most basic relations, and many dynamical systems. Using the analogue of a birthing event will be further explored. Metaphors are a most fundamental educational tool grounded within homogeneity and isotropy.


We postulate that the Unification processes continue beyond the 67th notation as specific unification processes. A kind of de facto unification continues within all the ratios, even though there are now truly entitive manifestations which, to date, are most often best described by the big bang theorists.


Electroweak processes: Now the heat requirements will determine when these processes begin to manifest and the measurements given by the big bang theorists can then be tweaked and integrated within the Quiet Expansion model. The analysis begins within the notational cluster from 133 to 138.


There is an undeniable thrust for life. That thrust is the designated study of the Center for Science of Information, a consortium located at Purdue University comprised of many other universities including MIT, Stanford, and University of California Berkeley, which is supported by the National Science Foundation. There are still more questions about the source of this thrust than there are answers. In cosmology, that thrust has a special name; it’s called inflation.


Questions: What is the deep source of that thrust? Is it deep within the finite-infinite relation? Is it the simple extension of power of 2, the doublings, the thrust of Planck energy? Are there analogous constructions between cellular division and inflation? More


Reflections: We start with a very small amount of energy, the Planck charge. We learn more about that energy through the many working ratios between the Planck base units whereby order, relations, and dynamics evolve with a specific continuity and symmetry. This concept was initially put forth as a philosophical orientation to life, and then it was explored in a post about numbers called, On Constructing the Universe From Scratch (see pages 5 and 6).


Ontology (Initially, mathematics and logic and then Entitive Manifestations): Though not an active row until July 4, 2016, the nature of thingness has been part of our mindscape for many, many years going back to Martin Heidegger’s key question, What is a thing? Our first charts of the Big Board-little universe all focused on things determined by the multiple of the Planck Length. All the data from those earlier charts will be validated, then integrated within our horizontally-scrolled chart.


Another line for Epistemology and Cosmology may also be added in time.


Help wanted: For every notation, we would like to have an expert and a team. Within this group of notations, we especially seek help from people who can help us re-create Max Planck’s thinking and the veracity of each formulation of the Planck base units.


Can you help us? Our learning curve is rather steep here.


Key words, primary concepts, and links to references for these ten notations:

1. Geometries: Projective, Euclidean, differential (Riemannian, Lie groups, etc), discrete and combinatorial, algebraic and transformational

2. The Pre-Measureable Structure of Matter: Might we conclude that this Small-Scale Universe is the structure that holds things together? Is it a re-definition of the ether? Is it MIT Frank Wilczek’s grid?

3. Renormalization (Scale Invariance), Universality, isotropy, homogeneity: Is it possible that everything-everywhere in the universe shares the first 67 notations, and uniquely evolves with those characteristics given within the 67th to 134th notations, and then begins to manifest in each of the large-scale notations, unfolding uniquely in the 201st (or 202nd, depending on how we add it all together) as “the given” within the current moment?


Editor’s note: Can you help upgrade that last sentence? I’ll be profoundly grateful. -BEC


Finite-Infinite: Studied throughout the history of humanity, this model provides a basis for a thorough reexamination of the concepts, mathematics and principles that operate between the two. Already there are several posts that open these reflections: (1) What is finite? And, what is truly infinite? and (2) Finite-Infinite reflections.


Design thoughts:

1. The areas above and below the numbers and discussions could also be used for graphics that are related to these notations. Perhaps a color background could reflect its temperature in its part of the universe.

2. Perhaps the area above the “Big Board-little universe” title (underlined) can be used for related graphics and color.

3. This “one page” board ideally would be a wiki page where schools and universities and the public could collaborate, update and add data.

4. Our application of base-2 exponentiation, the powers of two, notational doublings from the four Planck Base Units to their maximums is still early-stage work. We’ll be adding dimensionless constants. Could this table be an online spreadsheet? April 27, 2016: More updating to come.


Notice the Scaling Vertices are already over 8 Million at the 12th notation.

7 8 9 10 11 12
6.900556×10-42s 1.380111×10-41s 2.760222×10-41s T(s) 5.52044×10-41s 1.10408×10-40s 2.20817×10-40s
2.06873×10-33m 4.13747×10-33m 8.274943×10-33m L(m) 1.654988×10-32m 3.309977×10-32m 6.619955×10-32m
2.78593×10 -6kg 5.57186×10-6kg 1.11437×10 -5kg M(kg) 2.22874×10 -5kg 4.45749×10-5kg 8.91498×10-5kg
2.400762×10-16C 4.801525×10-16C 9.603051×10-16C C(Coulombs) 1.920610×10-15C 3.841220×10-15C 7.682441×10-15C
2.821431×10-25K 5.642862×10-25K 1.128572×10-24K T(Kelvin) 2.257145×10-24K 4.514290×10-24K 9.028580×10-24K
32 64 128 B2 Vertices 256 512 1024
262,144 2,097,152 16,777,216 ScalingV 134,217,728 1,073,741,824 8,589,934,592
299,791,784.89 299,792,552.918 299,792,661.605 Light m/sec 299,792,770.14 299,794,398.957 299,793,720.592
Trigonometrics ZFC Bifurcation Ontology binary ops Scalar fields Ousia
Discussion: This fledgling model of the universe, to gain a little respect, will be required to incorporate the extensive work that has gone into the parametrization of ΛCDM (Lambda cold dark matter) or Lambda-CDM model. To begin that process, mathematicians have been challenged to find where their own formulas could be embedded within this model.


Speed of Light: These simple calculations are listed to challenge us to think of the processes and relations between numbers. This ratio, the notational multiples of the Planck Length to Planck Time, is very basic. Again, the experimental measurement is 299,792,458 meters/second in a vacuum. Within notation 3, the simple result of the numbers: 299,768,509.931 m/s (given above)
and within notation 73, the slowest at 299,764,336.21 m/s. Variations are being studied for patterns. Also, we will attempt to find the resolution of Planck Length and Planck Time carried out perhaps to ten decimal places each and do recalculations.


Throughout the 202 notations, the highest calculation is 299,982,157 (Notation #16) and the lowest (#73) 299,764,336.21 (a range of 217,820 m/sec). The speed of light in a vacuum is 299,792,458. This data from this chart gives us a variable speed of light notation by notation. At some point, we will average all speeds. From a cursory glance at the data, it appears that the figure will be higher than the experimental value measured in the laboratory. It is within .125 percent (.125% or 374,243 m/s) of the experimental results throughout all the notations. Of course, we will be studying these variations and all our simple calculations more closely.


Tweet and Retweet

“Light: The ratio between Planck Time/Planck Length along all 202 base-2 exponentiations from the Planck base units.”


“Let there be light! Observe the 10th row. Planck Length/Planck Time ratio along 202 notations!”


“Help interpret the math?!?”


Background: In early May, some among us began asking the question, “Could Big Bang Cosmology, the theory, implode?” Others made projections, “Perhaps we might start a movement to put the big bang on ice. Its inherent nihilism is making a mess of this little world.”(May 2016)


Key observation: These five Planck base units are intimately woven. There are hundreds of calculations to test between them.


Prediction: All the dimensionless constants will all be discerned among those calculations! The fabric of life is just beginning to be woven. The numbers are so small, meaning has yet to be imputed to them. Here it seems that we are in the domain of ontology and ontological designing, pointfree or incidence geometries, and systems philosophy.


Key Questions: Do these notations give the ontological studies a possible domain within which to work? Is there also a place within these notations for the mind? (This discussion/observations/questions/inquiry was begun on May 6, 2016. It is “to be continued” UNTIL all 204 notations have been addressed.)


Key words: (primary concepts and links to references for these six notations) What about the placement of the Planck temperature? Do the calculations of Max Planck warrant that it be placed with the others at bottom of the chart?


Open: Your questions and comments are always welcomed. In the order of magnitudes, 1×10−15 Coulombs is the charge on a typical dust particle!


Help wanted: For every notation, we would like to have an expert and a team. Within this group of notations, we seek help from those people expert in combinatorics, cellular automaton, cubic close packing, bifurcation theory (with Mitchell Feigenbaum’s constants), the Langlands program, mereotopology and point-free geometry (A.N. Whitehead, Harvard, 1929), the 80-known binary operations, scalar field theory and non-commutative geometries, discrete models of space-time at the Planck scale (like lattice versions of loop quantum gravity), cellular networks and SU(2) gauge theory. Can you help us? Our learning curve is rather steep here.


The number of Scaling Vertices could now support any and all geometries.

13 14 15 16 17 18
4.416356×10-40s 8.832712×10-40s 1.766542×10-39s T(seconds) 3.53085×10-39s 7.06617×10-39s 1.413234×10-38s
1.323991×10-31m 2.647982×10-31m 5.295964×10-31m L(meters) 1.059192×10-30m 2.118385×10-30m 4.236771×10-30m
1.782996×10-4kg 3.565993×10-4kg 7.131987×10-4kg M(kilograms) 1.426397×10-3kg 2.852795×10-3kg 5.705590×10-3kg
1.53648×10-14C 3.07297×10-14C 6.14595×10-14C C(Coulombs) 1.229190×10-13C 2.458381×10-13C 4.916762×10-13C
1.805716×10-23K 3.611432×10-23K 7.222864×10-23K T(Kelvin) 1.444572×10-22K 2.889145×10-22K 5.778291×10-22K
2048 4096 8192 B2Vertices 16,384 32,768 65,536
68,719,476,736 549,755,813,888 4.3980465×1012 ScalingV 3.5184372×1013 2.8147497×1014 2.2517998×1015
299,792,634.47 299,792,634.47 299,792,702.353 Light m/sec 299,982,157.27 299,792,532.58 299,792,603.348
Hypostatic Automaton axiom Ontology theorems groups sets
Discussion: Since the first Big Board-little universe in December 2011, there have been many other charts and posts to begin to discern the meaning and value of these all these numbers.One of the simplest charts was entitled, Universe Table, The Human Scale. In this chart the Small Scale and Large Scale are compressed so most of the entries represent as many as ten notations. Within the small scale, the first group of ten are labelled “Forms” after Plato’s work in the Timeaus. The next group of ten are labelled “Ousia” after Aristotle’s work on the nature of structure.

Philosophy and psychology (study of the mind) have never had a place on the grid that includes number theory and the sciences. We will use these first 60 notations to test concepts and ideas.

Within another posting about numbers, the place of Pi and bifurcation theory are raised. It is within the first ten notations, this work may well be applied and developed. It could also include combinatorics, cellular automaton, cubic close packing, bifurcation theory, the Langlands program, mereotopology and point-free geometry (A.N. Whitehead, Harvard, 1929), the 80-known binary operations, and scalar field theory.

Cellular Automaton. Work being done within computer science, its logic and functions, are entirely analogous to mathematical logic, functions, and binary operations. Our studies, particularly of Steve Wolfram’s New Kind of Science, is being pursued with great expectations that some of this work uniquely applies to the first ten-to-twenty notations.

Key questions: At last count, Pi has been computed out to over 12.1 trillion digits that form no discernible pattern and it appears to be non-ending. It seems that pi holds part of the secret about the random, chaotic, statistical nature of things within quantum mechanics. The other is in the gap between the five tetrahedral cluster which we call a pentastar until a better name is posted.

Key words: Primary concepts and links to references for these six notationsOne of the supporting posts for these initial 67 notations asks the question, “Are the first 67 notations key missing links?”>Are the first 67 notations key missing links?

Help: Complete numbers of scaling vertices: 4398046511104, 35184372088832, 281474976710656; 2,251,799,813,685,248 (2.2 quadrillion)

Open: Updated, May 7, 2016. Much more work to come.


By the 21th notation there are over a quintillion Scaling Vertices.

19 20 21 22 23 24
2.826468×10-38s 5.653293×10-38s 1.130658×10-37s T(seconds) 2.261317×10-37s 4.522263×10-37s 9.045269×10-37s
8.473542×10-30m 1.694708×10-29m 3.389416×10-29m Length(m) 6.778833×10-29m 1.355766×10-28m 2.711533×10-28m
1.141118×10-2kg 2.282236×10-2kg 4.564472×10-2_kg M(kilograms) 9.128944×10-2kg 1.825788×10-1kg 3.651577×10-1kg
9.8335245×10-13C 1.9667049×10-12C 3.9334098×10-12C C(Coulombs) 7.866819×10-12C 1.573363×10-11C 3.146727×10-11C
1.155658×10-21K 2.311316×10-21K 4.622633×10-21K Temp(Kelvin) 9.245266×10-21K 1.849053×10-20K 3.698106×10-20K
131,072 262,144 524,288 B2_Doublings 1,048,576 2097152 4194304
1.8014399×1016 1.4411519×1017 1.1529215×1018 ScalingV 9.223372×1018 7.378697×1019 5.902958×1020
299,792,603.348 299,773,600.97 299,773,760.058 Light m/sec 299,773,671.714 299,798,132.04 299,773,616.462
Mereotopology architecture topos Ontology Ether (aether) Langlands II Geometries:
Redefinition of bbc‘s Inflationary Epoch:

What has been considered to be an infinitesimally short epoch by the best thinkers within bbc, particularly Alan Guth, MIT), now becomes part and parcel of every notation. Called an inflationary process and transitioning processes, inflation is now considered to be a deep dynamic of every notation. The very doubling of each Planck base unit value is inflation. It continues within the 201st notation (our time container).


The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt, and Adam Riess for providing evidence that the expansion of the universe appears to be accelerating.


The Next Challenge: Electroweak Epoch Go to the notational cluster 133 to 138.


Structure: A simple logic suggests that base-8 expansion, scaling vertices, build upon the prior notation. Nothing goes away. It is hypostatized or imputed to be the very structure of the universe that everything shares. The time within each notation could be understood to be the speed by which interactions take place. It is a duration that is infrastructure, not past-present-or-future. Within this definition, all these would be pointfree vertices.


Key questions about sleep: What is sleep? Where is sleep? Why do living things sleep? The suspicion is that sleep is within the small-scale universe. The deepest part of sleep does not activate any brain neurons (4 microns to 100 microns or notations 97 to 102), atoms or particles. More to come. This is a placeholder. Introduced May 8, 2016, it probably belongs within the cluster, 49 to 54.


Key words, primary concepts, and links to references for these ten notations: Can we begin to explore the finite-infinite relation before we get too far away from notation #1? Can we assume that the simple mathematical continuity established by power of two, base-2 exponentiation, also known as doublings, is meaningful? …that it is a part of the deep structure of the universe? Within notation the coulombs number is now 1.96×10-12C. What does that number tell us if we know that it is about the charge in typical microwave frequency capacitor?


Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 19 to 24 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.


Note: https://www.mathsisfun.com/calculator-precision.html


By the 30th notation the universe weighs about 50 pounds (23.7 kilograms)!

25 26 27 ←Domains→ 28 29 30
1.8090539×10-36s 3.6181079×10-36s 7.2362158×10-36s T(seconds) 1.4472431×10-35s 2.8944863×10-35s 5.7889726×10-35s
5.423067×10-28m 1.084613×10-27m 2.169226×10-27m L(meters) 4.338453×10-27m 8.676907×10-27m 1.735381×10-26m
7.30315×10-1kg 1.460631 kg 2.92126 kg M(kilograms) 5.84252 kg 11.685 kg 23.37 kg
6.29345510-11C 1.25869×10-10C 2.51738×10-10C C(Coulombs) 5.0347×10-10C 1.0069×10-9C 2.0139×10-9C
7.396213×10-20K 1.479242×10-19K 2.9584853×10-19K T(Kelvin) 5.916970×10-19K 1.183394×10-18K 2.366788×10-18K
8,388,608 16,777,216 33,554,432 B2Vertices 67,108,864 134,217,728 268,435,456
4.722366×1021 3.777893×1022 3.0223145×1023 ScalingV 2.4178516×1024 1.9342813×1025 1.547425×1026
299,792,603.34 299,773,600.97 299,773,760.05 Light m/sec 299,773,671.71 299,798,132.04 299,773,616.46
Projective Riemannian Euclidean Ontology Non-Euclidean Absolute QUALITIES
In Search Of: Line 11, just above, is defined by Ontology / Number. It is currently a breadbasket of conceptual work in search of some kind of fundamental lemma. The positioning of each discipline along the line will be the subject to continuous change until real mathematical work begins to tie the disciplines together and suggests a logical order.


The Langlands Programs. The expectation is that Robert Langlands’ work will be used in more than one cluster to move from Forms, to Ousia (primary substances and structures), and then to primary Qualities, Relations and Systems. Though numbers and ratios, the Planck base unit multiples between 1 and 65 remind us that though not instantiated within a space and time that is part of direct human experience, these are nevertheless real realities.


Speed of Light: The speed of light calculations are still very early-stage work. The experimental measurement is 299,792,458 meters/second in a vacuum. Within notations 25-30, simple results are given (above). To obtain more precise information, the next step will be to carry each out ten decimal places, and if that begins to suggest something, we will go out even more places beyond what would normally be considered statistically relevant. Perhaps we just might find some clues along the way, i.e. begin to see some patterns, that would tell us something about all the dimensionless constants as well as incommensurables, irrational, and transcendental numbers within those calculations.


Key words: Finite-infinite: Leibniz–Clarke correspondence: In the debate between Sir Isaac Newton (through Samuel Clarke), we side with the relational view of Leibniz. The Infinite appears to defined by continuity, symmetry and harmony, the perfections of order, relations, and dynamics. Of course, continuity equations are established between the Planck base units and their respective numbers at the Age of the Universe today and the Observable Universe today. We have imputed geometries from the first notations.


For more, see the posting, Numbers: On Constructing the Universe From Scratch. These geometries create simple symmetries, broken symmetries, and a multiplicity of symmetry groups. At some point within the small scale universe, the symmetry have enough space and time to interact and cause dynamical moments. Within our Universe Table and UniverseView, Systems begins at notation 50.


Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 25 to 30 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.


By the 36th notation the universe weighs 3297.4238 pounds (1495.6 kg)!

31 32 33 ←Steps→ 34 35 36
1.157794×10-34s 2.315589×10-34s 4.631178×10-34s T(seconds) 9.262356×10-34s 1.852471×10-33s 3.704942×10-33s
3.470762×10-26m 6.941525×10-26m 1.388305×10-25m L(meters) 2.77661×10-25m 5.55322×10-25m 1.110644×10-24m
46.79kg/(103lbs) 93.48039_kg 186.9607851_kg M(kilograms) 373.92157_kg 747.84314_kg 1.49568×103kg
4.0278116×10-9C 8.05562329×10-9C 1.6111246×10-8C C(Coulombs) 3.2222493×10-8C 6.4444986×10-8C 1.2888997×10-7C
4.733576×10-18K 9.467153×10-18K 1.89343×10-17K T(Kelvin) 3.78686×10-17K 7.57372×10-17K 1.51474×10-16K
536,870,912 1,073,741,824 2,147,483,648 B2Vertices 4,294,967,296 8,589,934,592 17,179,869,184
1.23794×1027 9.9035203×1027 7.9228163×1028 ScalingV 6.338253×1029 4.0564819×1031 3.2451855×1032
299,773,655.822 299,773,645.85 299,773,652.77 Light m/sec 299,773,671.71 299,773,655.878 299,773,655.18
Mandelbrot sets Path integral formulations Ontology within pure mathematics & philosophy
An Introductory Discussion About Mass: The mass of the universe has gone from the very small side of exponential notation to start the rapid climb up the very large side of exponential notation scale. To see how rapid it rises, we’ll use the whole numbers in kilograms within the next set of six notations (and occasionally also in pounds) so you can see how quickly it gets out of reach. For example, the weight of the earth is 5.972×1024. Within which notation would you guess that much weight could be found on the scale?


Notice within notation 30, it is 23.37 kg. Notation 31 is 46.79 kilograms or about 103 pounds. Here is a pure form of mass, all those vertices aggregating as forms (structure) and function. It is an ideal substance. By notation 36, it is 1,495.68628 kilograms or over 3297 pounds. That’s about the weight of an SUV. The “Spirit of Liberty” Bell stands 6 feet tall and weighs 3,200 pounds.


Notation 111: The universe is still a long way to becoming a second old (not until Notation 143), and it already has a mass (weight-density-force) of the earth. What is this mass within the first 60 or so notations? Does it have anything to do with the so-called Dark Energy and Dark Matter that seems so mysterious to science? We believe so there will be much more to come.


Key questions about mass, order, relations and dynamics: Only the Human Scale version of the Universe Table or Universe Chart is done. The small scale and large scale are summarized in blocks of no more than ten notations. Echoing Plato, we have guessed that the first ten are Forms or the Eidos. The next ten are Structure or Ousia, echoing Aristotle. Synthesizing the two, the next ten notations might be labelled Substances knowing full well that it would be another 40 to 50 notations before anything that could be defined as entitive or physical would emerge (Notations 65-69)..

So mathematically there are at least 60 notations to begin to define with pure math, geometry, logic, and patience. To date, there is one posting that touches on it: On Constructing the Universe From Scratch. It is from here that we will pick up again to postulate in what ways each notation is also an archetype, clusters, containers, domains, groups, layers, and sets. We will be more closely examining the ratios at each step and doubling.


Key words, primary concepts, and links to references for this group of notations: We are consulting with a journal, Multiscale Modeling and Simulations (MMS), an interdisciplinary journal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SCIAM) that focuses on the fundamental modeling and computational principles underlying various multiscale methods.


Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 31 to 36 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.


Now there are over one trillion simple vertices.

37 38 39 ←Steps→ 40 41 42
7.409885×10-33s 1.481977×10-32s 2.963954×10-32s T(seconds) 5.927908×10-32s 1.185581×10-31s 2.371163×10-31s
2.221288×10-24m 4.442576×10-24m 8.885153×10-24m L(meters) 1.7770306×10-23m 3.5540612×10-23m 7.1081226×10-23m
2.991372×103kg 5.982745×103kg 1.196549×104kg M(kilograms) 2.393098×104kg 4.786196×104kg 9.572392×104kg
2.577799×10-7C 5.155598×10-7C 1.031119×10-6C C(Coulombs) 2.062239×10-6C 4.124479×10-6C 8.248958×10-6C
3.0294889×10-16K 6.0589779×10-16K 1.2117955×10-15K T(Kelvin) 2.42359×10-15K 4.84718×10-15K 9.69436×10-15K
34,359,738,368 68,719,476,736 137,438,953,472 B2Vertices 274,877,906,944 549,755,813,888 1,099,511,627,776
2.5961484×1033 2.0769187×1034 1.661535×1035 ScalingV 1.329228×1036 1.0633824×1037 8.5070592×1037
299,773,613.22 299,773,613.221 299,773,646.959 Meters/second 299,773,646.95 299,773,798.669 299,773,680.679
From qualities to initial relations… Ontology RELATIONS What is sleep? Finite-Infinite
Continued Discussion About Mass: The visual doubling within just these six notation goes from heavy to very heavy quickly. Measurements given are in kilograms (pounds):

2991.37256 (6594.847)

5982.74512 (13,189.695)

11,965.49024 (26,379.390)

23,930.98048 (52,758.780)

47,861.96096 (105,517.56 lbs)

95,723.92192 (211,035.123 lbs.) On the scale of a blue whale!


Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: The outline for this chart was completed in April 2016. In the summer of 2016, many of these numbers were examined for the first time. Although a simple model, it is aggregating a lot of data, and guesses and conjectures are being made as to what it all means. Your help to make sense of it all is most welcomed.


Key words, primary concepts, and links to references for these six notations: This rapid increase in mass begs the question, “What is mass? We’ll guess, make conjectures and someday we just might postulate what some of those ratios that define mass actually mean. Within Notation 33, the charge has grown to 1.61×10-8 Coulombs, about the amount of charge in static electricity.


Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 37 to 42 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.


Possible References: The First Galaxies in the Universe By Abraham Loeb, Steven R. Furlanetto

First Light / first galaxies / UCO/Lick Observatory • University of California Santa Cruz

Axiomatic set theory: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Set_theory#Axiomatic_set_theory

Aczel, Bernays, von Neumann, Quine, Fraenkel – Zermello

ArXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.4339



The time and length are still so small and short, for most of us, it is still less than meaningful.

43 44 45 ←Steps→ 46 47 48
4.742326×10-31s 9.484652×10-31s 1.896930×10-30s T(seconds) 3.793861×10-30s 7.587722×10-30s 1.517544×10-29s
1.421624×10-22m 2.843249×10-22m 5.686498×10-22m L(meters) 1.137299×10-21m 2.274599×10-21m 4.5491984×10-21m
1.914478×105kg 3.828956×105kg 7.657913×105kg M(kilograms) 1.531582×106kg 3.06316×106kg 6.12633×106kg
1.649791×10-5C 3.299583×10-5C 6.599166×10-5C C(Coulombs) 1.31983×10-4C 2.63966×10-4C 5.27933×10-4C
1.93887×10-14K 3.87774×10-14K 7.75549×10-14K T(Kelvin) 1.55109×10-13K 3.102196×10-13K 6.204393×10-13K
2.1990232×1012 4.3980465×1012 8.796093×1012 B2Vertices 1.7592186×1013 3.5184372×1013 7.0368744×1013
6.8056473×1038 5.4445179×1039 4.3556143×1040 ScalingV 3.4844914×1041 2.7875931×1042 2.2300745×1043
299,773,571.02 299,773,676.46 299,773,739.674 Meters/second 299,773,502.5 299,773,634.3 299,773,739.674
Finite-infinite: Transformation Ideation Ontology Conceptualization Quine atom Bifurcation
Convergence, Grand Unification, Symmetry Groups, and so-called Dense Matter: Although the “Grand” Unification only holds for a fractional second (3.978151×10-24 second), what a fractional second it is! It holds the universe together to this day-moment in isotropic and homogeneous ways. The simplest doubling of a structure from the first cluster of six notations would be the tetrahedral-octahedral-tetrahedral structure aka TOT, octet, strut, and beam, binds the universe in just 201 notations. This matter is not dark, but it is dense.More Examination of Increases in Mass: Along the Mass/Kilogram lines, the sizes are now growing quite large:

Notation 43: 191,447.84 kilograms (km) or 422,070 pounds

Notation 44: 382,895.68

Notation 45: 765,791.37

Notation 46: 1,531,582.75

Notation 47: 3,063,165.50

Notation 48: 6,126,331 (13,506,247 pounds or about 6753 US tons like large metal cruise ships or bulk cargo-carrying ships).

Key questions of big bang cosmology:

The leading theory about the structure of the universe is the big bang cosmology. It is not simple. It is not elegant. It does not respect the Planck base units. It has no causal efficacy. It is very poor theory upon which to base our sciences and our understanding of the universe.

In stark contrast, this chart evolves from most minute quantities of the most basic constituents of reality. It builds incrementally. And as we will see, it builds a universe cluster by cluster, domain by domain, one doubling at a time, with natural groups, layers and sets.

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 43 to 48 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here


Our guess is that within this domain, groups and sets become systems.

49 50 51 ←Steps→ 52 53 54
3.03508889×10-29s 6.0701777×10-29s 1.2140355×10-28s T(seconds) 2.4280711×10-28s 4.8561422×10-28s 9.7122844×10-28s
9.098396×10-21m 1.819679×10-20m 3.639358×10-20m L(meters) 7.278717×10-20m 1.455743×10-19m 2.91148×10-19m
1.225266×107kg 2.450532×107kg 4.901064×107kg M(kilograms) 9.802129×107kg 1.960425×108kg 3.920851×108kg
1.055866×10-3C .002111733 C .004223466 C C(Coulombs) .00844693 C .0168938 C .0337877 C
1.2408×10-12K 2.48175×10-12K 4.9635×10-12K T(Kelvin) 9.9270×10-12K 1.98540×10-11K 3.97081×10-11K
1.4073749×1014 2.8147498×1014 5.6294995×1014 B2Vertices 1.1258999×1015 2.2517998×1015 4.5035996×1015
1.7840596×1044 1.4272477×1045 1.1417982×1046 ScalingV 9.1343852×1046 7.3075082×1047 5.8460065×1048
299,773,625.411 299,773,596.41 299,773,606.291 Light m/sec 299,773,635.13 299,773,565.1 299,773,070.79
Theory SYSTEMS Causal Ontology Causal Metric Hypothesis
Notations 50 to 60: Reader warning – very rough draft! There are several fascinating articles about consciousness and the brain-mind relation [1] [2]. We know that we live within the 202 notation, 13.8+ billion years from the first moment of creation. Yet, we also know that there are multiples of the Planck length were things like particles and sub-particles could or should manifest and that these particles and sub-particles can be measured and their qualities understood. It would seem each notation in which an entity can be first measured is where there are the necessary relations above it and below it to create the groups and sets that make an entity manifest uniquely. These notations are “a long way” from current time. So, although specific notations are where entities manifest, everything must “transcend time” to be integrated as a whole within the 202 notation. Within discrete time, all notations are always available to us. Each space/time (length) ratio exists uniquely, and long after it manifests for the first time, it continues to manifest dependent on all manifestations throughout the subsequent notations and on all prior notations.

Clear as clay and mud? We will continue working on this language. We’ve just started the process of thinking about this data. There is a long way to go!

Speculation. In this context, the mind is hypostatized (imputed) to manifest within the “Systems” group which is also hypostatized to be between the 50th to 60th notations. In that context, we are now re-reading papers like [1] Mathematical Foundations of Consciousness, Willard L. Miranker and Gregg J. Zuckerman, Department of Computer Science and Mathematics, Yale University, 23 Oct 2008 and [2] The Simplest Mathematical Model of Consciousness, Roderick Wallace, New York State Psychiatric Institute, September 2, 2014.
Continued Discussion about Mass and kilograms::
49. 12,252,662.00576
50. 24,505,324.01152
51. 49,010,648.02304
52. 98,021,296.04608
53. 196,042,592.09216 is over 432,199,933 pounds
54. 392,085,184.18432
Key questions about Planck’s base units:
Even at the 54th notation, the other Planck base unit multiples are still infinitesimally small. We still have much to learn before we can begin postulating something special about each unit and their functions within each
container, cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step.
Notations, Exponentiations, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 49 to 54 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.
Thoughts On The Variable Speed of Light Calculations: Using Notation #53 as our example, six decimals divided by six decimals equals 299,773,565.1. By using the seventh decimal within time, the new calculation is 299,773,552.76. Using #54, with seven decimals, it is 299,772,934.98. With six it is 299,772,947.33. And with five, matching the value within the space unit, is: 299,773,070.79. That could explain some of the variances, however, it does not explain the variances between notations.
Throughout the 202 notations, the highest calculation as 299,982,157 (#16) and the lowest (#3) is 299,790,300. The speed of light in a vacuum is 299,792,458. We might argue for a variable speed of light. At some point, we will average all speeds. From a cursory glance at the data, it appears that the figure will be higher than the experimental value measured in the laboratory. It appears to be within .1% (299,797) of the experimental result. Of course, we will be studying these variations and their calculations more closely.


At the 58th notation under charge (Coulombs) the value is just over 1.

55 56 57 ←Steps→ 58 59 60
1.9424568×10-27s 3.8849137×10-27s 7.7698275×10-27s T(seconds) 1.55396551×10-26s 3.10793103×10-26s 6.215862×10-26s
5.82297×10-19m 1.16459×10-18m 2.32918×10-18m L(meters) 4.65837×10-18m 9.31675×10-18m 1.863351×10-17m
7.841670×108kg 1.568340×109kg 3.136681×109kg M(kilograms) 6.27336×109kg 1.25467×1010kg 2.50934×1010kg
.067575465 C .13515093 C .27030186 C C(Coulombs) .54060372 C 1.0812074 C 2.1624149 C
7.94162×10-11K 1.58832×10-10K 3.1766 ×10-10K T(Kelvin) 6.3532×10-10K 1.27065×10-9K 2.54131×10-9K
9.007199×1015×1015 1.8014398×1016 3.6028797×1016 B2Vertices 7.2057594×1016 1.4411518×1017 2.8823037×1017
4.6768052×1049 3.7414441×1050 2.9931553×1051 ScalingV 2.39452428×1052 1.91561942×1053 1.5324955×1054
299,774,511.57 299,772,710.3 299,772,710.3 Lightm/sec 299,774,125.46 299,773,482.672 299,773,643.55
Loop Quantum Gravity spin foams string/M Theory Ontology Causal set theory AdS/CFT correspondence
Planck Charge: Notice the Planck Charge multiple has now grown to a whole number. The transition to 1 coulomb is between notations 58 and 59. At a temperature of 6.3532×10-10 Kelvin, the Mass is still superconducting and will be up to about 203 Kelvin (or -70º C or -94.27º F) which manifests between notation 106 and 107. Now we will watch the rapid rise of the coulombs value. What does it mean?
Continued Mass Analysis: Within notation 55, mass is now 1.7 billion pounds (1,728,799,734.88 lbs).55. 784,170,368.36864 kilograms
56. 1,568,340,736.73728
57. 3,136,681,473.47456
58. 6,273,362,946.94912
59. 12,546,725,893.89824
60. 25,093,451,787.79648
What about light? We will continue computing line 10. Perhaps we should average number using all 202 notations and highlight the smallest and largest values after checking the math! Perhaps the figures will speak to somebody in some special way.
On working with the postulations of the big bang theorists:All the Planck base unit values are keys to interpreting the epochs within big bang cosmology. Although technically the Planck Epoch should be just the first notation (#1) we will initially be giving it the first six notations. The Grand Unification Epoch we will float from Notations 2 to 60. The Inflationary Epoch has been renamed, inflationary process and transitioning processes and they has been applied to every notation (See notation cluster).
The Electroweak Epoch will also be downgraded from an epoch to a transition process. Given its temperature requirements it is guessed to begin between notations 136 and 137. The Quark Epoch should begin soon thereafter. It is up for grabs. Much more analysis is required. We will be using the temperature requirements of the big bang theorists to determine some of these placements.Yet, to be sure we are all on the same page, the universe is still so young, we have no instrumentation to measure such a short duration. Our first measurement of a duration will not happen until Notation 84.
In the QE model time is discrete quantized, and locally defined BY-AND-WITHIN ITS NOTATION. It will be among the most difficult definitions to explain and it may take many successive approximations over several years.
Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 55 to 60 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

Finally at the 66th notation the space is large enough for the elements of particle physics.

61 62 63 ←Steps→ 64 65 66
1.2431724×10-25s 2.4863448×10-25s 4.9726896×10-25s T(seconds) 9.945379×10-25s 1.989075×10-24s 3.978151×10-24s
3.726703×10-17m 7.453406×10-17m 1.490681×10-16m L(meters) 2.981362×10-16m 5.962725×10-16m 1.19254×10-15m
5.01869×1010kg 1.00373×1011kg 2.00747×1011kg M(kilograms) 4.01495×1011kg 8.02990×1011kg 1.60598×1012kg
4.3248298 C 8.6496596 C 17.299319 C C(Coulombs) 34.59863 C 69.19727 C 138.3945 C
5.08263×10-9K 1.01652×10-8K 2.03305×10-8K T(Kelvin) 4.06611×10-8K 8.13222×10-8K 1.62644×10-7K
5.7646075×1017 1.1529215×1018 2.305843×1018 B2Vertices 4.611686×1018 9.223372×1018 1.8446744×1019
1.2259964×1055 9.8079715×1055 7.8463772×1056 ScalingV 6.2771017×1057 5.0216814×1058 4.0173451×1059
299,773,627.535 299,773,723.99 299,773,623.48 Light m/sec 299,773,593.34 299,773,764.187 299,772,507.32
Quantum Gravity Amplituhedron Grid Ontology Strings Quarks Fermion
Large Hadron Collider (LHC), CERN, Geneva: It appears that notations 66, 67 and 68 are the domain of the LHC. One of our goals is to understand enough about the Higgs, gluonballs, diphotons, and the like to be able to integrate this Planck-multiple scale data and the data that defines the electroweak processes.
Standard Model of Particle PhysicsStandard Model for Particle Physics: We have hypothesized that this Standard Model falls between notations 63 and 80. It seems plausible.
Can you help us? Our learning curve is rather steep here.
The Quark Epoch: Here big bang cosmology’s outline for reality begins to work within this simple model using base-2 exponential notation and the Planck base units as the starting point. The post is titled, “How did the universe begin? And, what does it mean? Could a Quiet Expansion impact the Big Bang?”
String Theory: The landscape of string theory requires special bungee cords, crampons, and climbing boots, top mental and physical conditioning, and about a 20 years of training. We will call on folks like Edward Witten to guide us through this part of the universe. We hypothesize that string theory begins within notation 1 and goes up to into Notations 50-60.
Symmetry and Symmetry-breaking: Though a key foundation for this QE model, here we engage the classic studies to current discussions. Your suggestions are invited.
Key question: Who can validate or invalidate this simple model? Your suggestions are invited.
Classical electron radius: This model challenges the idea that the electron is a point particle with a point charge and and no spatial extent. This is true of Planck Length and Planck Charge within Notation 1, yet the infinitesimal is defined by an additional 64 doublings.
The classic radius of the electron falls within notation 61. For more, click here.
Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 61 to 66 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

Transitions from the Small Scale to the Human Scale

67 68 69 ←Steps→ 70 71 72
7.95630×10-24s 1.59126×10-23s 3.18252×10-23s T(seconds) 6.36504×10-23s 1.273008×10-22s 2.546017×10-22s
2.38509×10-15m 4.77018×10-15m 9.54036×10-15m L(meters) 1.90807×10-14m 3.81614×10-14m 7.6322×10-14m
3.211962×1012kg 6.423923×1012kg 1.284784×1013kg M(kilograms) 2.569569×1013kg 5.139138×1013kg 1.027827×1014kg
276.78910 C 553.57821 C 1.107156×103C C(Coulombs) 2.214312×103 C 4.428625×103 C 8.857251×103 C
3.25288×10-7K 6.50576×10-7K 1.301152×10-6K T(Kelvin) 2.602304×10-6K 5.204608×10-6K 1.04092164×10-5K
3.6893488×1019 7.3786976×1019 1.4757395×1020 B2Vertices 2.9514791×1020 5.9029581×1020 1.1805916×1021
3.2138761×1060 2.5711009×1061 2.0568806×1062 ScalingV 1.6455046×1063 1.3164036×1064 1.0531229×1065
299,773,764.18 299,773,764.187 299,773,764.187 Light m/sec 299,773,449.97 299,773,449.97 299,772,191.673
Protons He atom diameter Electron diameter Ontology Our Standard Model
Re-examining big bang cosmology (bbc) in light of this quiet expansion of 202 notations:: In this transition from the small-scale to human-scale universe, it is important to take stock of where we are in the universe. First, the 67th notation marks “one-third of 201.” Within this model, it is the small-scale universe. Notations 67 to 134 we call the human-scale universe even though there are facets of it that are too small to be measured (i.e. a duration of time below Notation 84). At notation 134, the time duration is still 1.1741×10-3 seconds (one thousandth of a second). The first second of the universe is between notations 143 and 144.
Within the bbc, however, theorists are gaining some confidence because they can now confirm their concepts through experimentation and measurements. It seems that most of the problems they will now encounter are due to the assumptions made to justify the first four epochs. Their contortions diminish the theory. They only have highly-theoretical data to justify the first four epochs of their theory. Up to about this point there has been no observational data from cosmology, astrophysics, particle physics, and theoretical physics to support their claims.
We are not yet aware of any problems the quiet expansion creates for this group at this point in the cosmic picture.Within the QE Planck length scale, the fermion and proton could emerge within the 67th notation. Yet, according to big bang theorists, the Quark Epoch goes from about Notation 40 to Notation 100, the Hadron Epoch from 100 to 150, and the Lepton and the Photon Epochs from about 140 to 150.
As we move up the scale to 150, we can speculate about how each notation continues to evolve based on what is happening in the larger notations “above” it.
Key questions about the nature of order and relations, and their dynamics: The organization of concepts within a single word is fascinating because each progression can be called a cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step and each is a face of that progression…more to come.
Link to Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling: From notations 67 to 72 the actual number of vertices can be accessed by clicking here, the beginning of the Human Scale and end of the small-scale universe.
Notes and references: More to come.

Within these notations questions will be raised about periodicity and frequencies.

73 74 75 ←Steps→ 76 77 78
5.09203×10-22s 1.01841×10-21s 2.0368×10-21s T(s) 4.0736×10-21s 8.1472×10-21s 1.6294×10-20s
1.5264×10-13m 3.0529×10-13m 6.1058×10-13m L(m) 1.2211×10-12m 2.4423×10-12m 4.8846×10-12m
2.0556×1014kg 4.1113×1014kg 8.2226×1014kg M(kg) 1.6445×1015kg 3.2890×1015kg 6.5780×1015kg
1.7714×104C 3.5429×104C 7.0858×104C C(Coulombs) 1.4171×105C 2.8343×105C 5.6686×105C
2.0818×10-5K 4.1636×10-5K 8.3273×10-5K T(Kelvin) 1.6654×10-4K 3.3309×10-4K 6.6619×10-4K
2.36118×1021 4.72236×1021 9.44473×1021 B2Vertices 1.888946×1022 3.777893×1022 7.555786×1022
8.42498×1065 6.73998×1066 5.39198×1067 ScalingV 4.313×1068 3.450×1069 2.760×1070
299,764,336.21 299,774,155.538 299,774,155.538 Lightm/sec 299,759,426.55 299,771,700.7 299,779,059.777
for Particle Physics Ontology gamma wavelength fluorine ion
Discussion: This range is somewhat of a mystery. We find few references on the web that approximate these Planck Scale multiples between notations 73-to-78. If you know of any or have even discovered one, please let us know. We will update the quadrant appropriately and document the origin of the new inclusion! Please click on “Contact” just above in the header. Thank you.
Key questions: Each quadrant is a cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step. We know that below the 67th notation, all phase relations are so small, they are below the thresholds of any measuring device. The analogue is the neutrino, everywhere present but not readily discernible. Yet, mathematically and geometrically there is an abundance of information. From a casual observation of these numbers, it appears to take no less than ten, and probably thirteen notations before the Periodic Table of Elements begins to manifest. Of course, there is much more to come.
Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 73 to 78 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

Containers for all the elements of the Periodic Table begin to manifest.

79 80 81 82 83 84
3.2589×10-20s 6.5178×10-20s 1.30356×10-19s T(seconds) 2.6071×10-19s 5.2142×10-19s 1.0428×10-18s
9.7693×10-12m 1.9538×10-11m 3.9077×10-11m L(meters) 7.8154×10-11m 1.5630×10-10m 3.12618×10-10m
1.3156×1016kg 2.6312×1016kg 5.2624×1016kg M(kilograms) 1.0524×1017kg 2.1049×1017kg 4.20998×1017kg
1.1337×106C 2.2674×106C 4.5349×106C C(Coulombs) 9.0698×106C 1.8139×107C 3.6279×108C
1.33238×10-3K 2.66476×10-3K 5.32953×10-3K T(Kelvin) 1.0659×10-2K 2.1318×10-2K 4.2636×10-2K
1.51115×1023 3.0223×1023 6.0446×1023 B2Vertices 1.20892×1024 2.41785×1024 4.83570×1024
2.2085×1071 1.7668×1072 1.4134×1073 ScalingV 1.1307×1074 9.046×1074 7.237×1075
299,773,657.5 299,773,656.73 299,773,657.653 Light m/sec 299,773,656.503 299,773,645.76 299,773,646.913
…79… Fullerenes Hydrogen Ontology Helium Carbon H2O
Discussion: The Periodic Table of Elements: The universe of things begins to manifest. So, of course, there will be much more to come!
Measurable time: The first moment of measurable time will come up around Notation 84.

Here is a report from “…the domain of attosecond measurements begins with 84.”

From the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik in Garching, Germany (Deutschland), the team of Prof. Dr. Ferenc Krausz leads the world in actually measuring the smallest unit of time. They are down into the attoseconds (10-18 seconds), so their group’s website is appropriately designated: https://www.attoworld.de
A most-prodigious scholar, Dr. Vladislav S. Yakovlev, sent his calculations:
Vladislav S. Yakovlev

Vladislav S. Yakovlev

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 79 to 84 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.


Now all the biological systems are getting their own notation.

85 86 87 88 89 90
2.0856×10-18s 4.1713×10-18s 8.3427×10-18s T(seconds) 1.6685×10-17s 3.3371×10-17s 6.6742×10-17s
6.25237×10-10m 1.2547×10-9m 2.500×10-9m L(meters) 5.000×10-9m 1.000×10-8 s 2.0000×10-8m
8.4199×1017kg 1.6839×1018kg 3.3679×1018kg M(kilograms) 6.7359×1018kg 1.3471×1019kg 2.6943×1019kg
7.2558×107C 1.4511×108C 2.9023×108C C(Coulombs) 5.8046×108C 1.1609×109C 2.3218×109C
.00088527 K .0017054 K .0034109 K T(Kelvin) .0068218 K .0136430 K .0272872 K
9.6714×1024 1.9342×1025 3.8685×1025 B2Vertices 7.73712×1025 1.54742×1026 3.09485×1026
5.7896×1076 4.6316×1077 3.7053×1078 ScalingV 2.9642×1079 2.3714×1080 1.8971×1081
299,773,646.913 299,796,567.44 299,771,057.33 Lightm/sec 299,773,646.433 299,773,646.13 299,773,648.82
DNA Insulin DNA Helix Ontology Virus cell wall thickness Nanowires
Discussion: Measuring Time. Here is a key concept about measuring units of time. First it is truly a fine science, yet in light of the Planck scale, it is still quite general and rough. Smallest fragment of time currently measurable in a laboratory is approximately 850 zeptoseconds, statistical averaging according to Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching, German. To remind us of the obvious, the universe is still substantially less than a second in existence! Complexity is now totally dazzling, simply beyond comprehension.

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: Within the Planck Length multiples are the measurements first used to determine the “Ontology” within any particular notation. Though in fact most appear only within our current notation, perhaps best called “The Now notation” or “today’s notation,” there is something eidetically related between the small scale, this human scale, the large scale, and the Now.

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 85 to 90 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.


Biological systems and technological systems continue to fill each notation.

91 92 93 94 95 96
1.3348×10-16s 2.6696×10-16s 5.3393×10-16s T(seconds) 1.0678×10-15s 2.1357×10-15s 4.2715×10-15s
4.0015×10-8m 8.0030×10-8m 1.600×10-7m L(meters) 3.201×10-7m 6.402×10-7m 1.28.microns (10-6)
5.3887×1019kg 1.0777×1020kg 2.1555×1020kg M(kilograms) 4.3110×1020kg 8.622×1020kg 1.724×1021kg
4.6437×109C 9.2875×109C 1.8575×1010C C(Coulombs) 3.7150×1010C 7.4300×1010C 1.4860×1011C
.0545744 K .1091488 K .2182976 K T(Kelvin) .4365953 K .8731907 K 1.74638 K
6.1897×1026 1.2379×1027 2.4758×1027 B2Vertices 4.9517×1027 9.9035×1027 1.9807×1028
1.5177×1082 1.2141×1083 9.71334×1083 ScalingV 7.7706×1084 6.2165×1085 4.9732×1086
299,773,646.584 299,773,645.728 299,773,645.728 Lightm/sec 299,773,644.992 299,773,645.273 299,773,645.74
Computer chip Nanowires Gold-leaf width Ontology Nanoparticles Visible light Bacteria
Discussion: Still Under Construction. Analysis of this simple chart has just begun. Though the first chart started in December 2011, it offers such a different view of reality, it’ll take awhile to adjust one’s conceptual frame of reality. Even in July 2019, it is still sinking in with those of us who have been wrestling with it for so mnay years now.
Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: In this range of notations are very common things yet these things do not manifest until the 202nd notation. Each of these notations might best be understood as the eidetic or archetypal.
Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 91 to 96 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.Charts: The primary chart is this one located here at http://81018.com/chart. Additional copies of this chart are here: https://81018.com/2016/09/28/81018/ (update: June 29, 2017)https://bbludata.wordpress.com/1-204/ (updated in June 2017)

Now all the elements of human life have a container.

97 98 99 100 101 102
8.543×10-15s 1.7086×10-14s 3.4172×10-14s T(seconds) 6.834×10-14s 1.366×10-13s 2.733×10-13s
2.56.microns 5.12.microns 10.24.microns (10-5) L(meters) 20.487.microns 40.975.microns 81.95.microns
3.4488×1021kg 6.8976×1021kg 1.3795×1022kg M(kilograms) 2.7590×1021kg 5.5181×1021kg 1.1036×1022kg
2.9720×1011C 5.944×1011C 1.188×1012C C(Coulombs) 2.3776×1012C 4.755×1012C 9.5104×1012C
3.4927 K 6.985 K 13.971 K T(Kelvin) 27.942 K 55.884 K 111.768 K
3.9614×1028 7.9228×1028 1.5845×1029 B2Vertices 3.1691×1029 6.3382×1029 1.26765×1030
3.9785×1087 3.1828×1088 2.5462×1089 ScalingV 2.037×1090 1.629×1091 1.3037×1092
299,773,645.46 299,773,646.092 299,773,645.507 Lightm/sec 299,773,645.068 299,773,645.507 299,773,645.507
bacteria Red blood cells capillaries Ontology Sperm cell Human hair paper width
Discussion: Kelvin is a very unusual temperature scale. At Notation 97 the number is 3.4927 K which is -453.38314 degrees Fahrenheit or -269.6573 degrees Celsius well within the range for high-temperature superconductors (-220 degrees Fahrenheit or-140 degrees Celsius at normal pressures, and -164 F and -109 C at high pressures). The human body temperature of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit equals 310.15 Kelvin. That falls between notations 103 and 104.
Key questions: It was here that we began to realize that our perception of reality was misplaced concreteness. If our focus was on time, every cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step is only manifest in the current time within the current notation. This chart, calculated using the Planck constant, has 202 (dependent on the very nature of addition and the nature of time). If we follow Planck Length, common things manifest within these notations. Taken as a whole, it is as if there is a phase relation between the small scale, human scale and large scale so all things manifest within the Now, including the imprints from prior notations, so although we interpret those imprints as “past” the notation is still actively part of the whole and is very much sustaining our universe.
Notes from Bruce:
January 2017. I realize that these comments are quite oblique. I’ll get back to this page eventually; perhaps with your help, we can do better.
July 2019. Just now looking at where visible light manifests on this chart. One micron begins beteween notations 102 and 103. Visible light is in the nanometer scale A chart pulled from one of our textbooiks shows visible light wavelengths are from about 380 to 740 nanometers or Notation 88.
Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 97 to 102 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.
SCROLL RIGHT103 to 108

The question should be asked, “What is a container?”

103 104 105 106 107 108
5.4675×10-13.s 1.0935×10-12.s 2.187×10-12.s T(seconds) 4.37402×10-12.s 8.748×10-12.s 1.7496×10-11.s
.16.millimeters.(10-4) .3278.mm .6556.mm L(meters) 1.3112 mm.(10-3) 2.6224 mm 5.2448 mm
2.2072×1022kg 4.41448×1022kg 8.8289×1022kg M(kilograms) 1.7657×1023kg 3.5315×1023kg 7.0631×1023kg
1.90208×1013C 3.8041×1013C 7.6083×1013C C(Coulombs) 1.5216×1014C 3.0433×1014C 6.086×1014C
223.5 K 447.07 K 8.9414×102 K T(Kelvin) 1.7882×103 K 3.5765×103 K 7.153×103 K
2.5353×1030 5.0706×1030 1.0141×1031 B2Vertices 2.0282×1031 4.0564×1031 8.1129×1031
1.0429×1093 8.3436×1093 6.6749×1094 ScalingV 5.339×1095 4.2719×1096 3.417×1097
299,773,649.162 299,773,649.162 299,773,650.07 Lightm/sec 299,773,389.446 299,773,637.5 299,773,650.076
human egg “.” A dot! big bacterium Ontology grain of sand small ant ball bearing
Discussion: The Quark Epoch is estimated to begin in the range of 10−12 seconds, highlight above from Notation 104 to 107. More comparisons with the Big Bang can be found here: https://81018.com/2016/06/01/quiet/
Planck Temperature: The Sun’s temperature is 5778 K. In this early edition of the chart, it is between notations 107 and 108. Much more analysis is forthcoming.
Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: When does a group of numbers become a cluster, container, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step?
Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 103 to 108 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.
SCROLL RIGHT109 to 114

Now all the elements of human life have a container.

109 110 111 112 113 114
3.4992×10-11.s 6.9984×10-11.s 1.3996×10-10.s T(seconds) 2.7993×10-10.s 5.5987×10-10.s 1.1197×10-9.s
1.04896.millimeters.(10-2) 2.097.cm 4.1958 cm L(meters) 8.3917 cm 16.7835 cm .(10-1) 33.5671.centimeters
1.41263×1024kg 2.82527×1024kg 5.6505×1024kg M(kilograms) 1.1301×1025kg 2.2602×1025kg 4.5204×1025kg
1.2173×1015C 2.4346×1015C 4.8693×1015C C(Coulombs) 9.7386×1015C 1.9477×1016C 3.8954×1016C
1.4306×104 K 2.4346×104 K 5.7225×104 K T(Kelvin) 1.1445×105 K 2.2890×105 K 4.5780×105 K
1.6225×1032 3.24518×1032 6.4903×1032 B2Vertices 1.2980×1033 2.5961×1033 5.1922×1033
2.73406×1098 2.1872×1099 1.7498×10100 ScalingV 1.3998×10101 1.1198×10102 8.9589×10102
299,772,606.4 299,773,666.63 299,773,795.141 Lightm/sec 299,773,663.764 299,773,645.935 299,773,661.998
Things: .825 inches 1.7 inches Ontology 3.3 inches 6.6 inches 13.215 inches
Discussion: These reflections under each group of six notations is weakest within the middle. So, yes, these pages are truly “under construction” and will be for awhile yet.
Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: Every cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step is active right now, and each is a transformation of light and active conduit to infinity; and for those of a religious persuasion, an active conduit to their Infinite.
Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 109 to 114 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.
SCROLL RIGHT115 to 120

Human life, environmental systems, and organizational systems begin to have a container.

115 116 117 118 119 120
2.2395×10-9.s 4.479×10-9.s 8.958×10-9.s T(seconds) 1.7916×10-8.s 3.5832×10-8.s 7.1664×10-8.s
67.1343 cm 1.34 meters.(100) 2.6853 m L(meters) 5.3707 m 10.7414 m (101) 21.4829.m
9.0408×1025kg 1.8081×1026kg 3.6163×1026kg M(kilograms) 7.2326×1026kg 1.4465×1027kg 2.8930×1027kg
7.7909×1016C 1.5581×1017C 3.1163×1017C C(Coulombs) 6.2327×1017C 1.2465×1018C 2.4930×1018C
9.1560×105 K 1.831×106 K 3.662×106 K T(Kelvin) 7.324×106 K 1.4649×107 K 2.929×107 K
1.03845×1034 2.0769×1034 4.1538×1034 B2Vertices 8.3076×1034 1.66153×1035 3.3230×1035
7.1671×10103 5.733×10104 4.5869×10105 ScalingV 3.6695×10106 2.9356×10107 2.3485×10108
299,773,610.181 299,773,656.65 299,773,666.022 Lightm/sec 299,773,650.07 299,773,637.5 299,773,650.076
26.43″ 52.76 inches 105+” or 9′ Ontology 17.62′ 35.24′ 70.48′
Discussion: Think about it, examples given within the row, Ontology, are those from the perspective of the 202nd notation. Within the Notation 115, at the moment it was unfolding, the universe is approximately 26.43″ and it is density exceeds imagination given its mass of 9.0408×1025kilograms. The charge, 7.7909×1016 coulombs, is wildly high and getting higher faster. Today, January 25, 2017, I just wrote to a brilliant young physicist, Brian Skinner of MIT, and asked him, “Do these numbers paint any kind of a meaningful picture?” I had just finished reading his blog under Gravity and Levity, titled “What if I were 1% charged?
Of course, as each notation unfolds, these initial ontological definitions get constantly redefined as the subsequent notations unfold (and are currently unfolding). Only within our current notation, 202, do these six notations truly begin to reflect the human scale.
Key questions: The big bang theory has very little to say about these early notations.
Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 115 to 120 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.
SCROLL RIGHT121 to 126

In about 1/100,000th of a second, all elements within human life have an archetypal container.

121 122 123 124 125 126
1.4332×10-7.s 2.8665×10-7.s 5.7331×10-7.s T(seconds) 1.1466×10-6.s 2.2932×10-6.s 4.5864×10-6.s
42.9659.m 85.9319.m 171.8638 m (102) L(meters) 343.7277 m 687.4554 m 1.3749.kilometers (103)
5.7861×1027kg 1.1572×1028kg 2.3144×1028kg M(kilograms) 4.6289×1028kg 9.2578×1028kg 1.8515×1029kg
4.9861×1018C 9.9723×1018C 1.9944×1019C C(Coulombs) 3.9889×1019C 7.9779×1019C 1.5955×1020C
5.8598×107 K 1.1719×108 K 2.3439×108 K T(Kelvin) 4.687×108 K 9.3758×108 K 1.8751×109 K
6.6461×1035 1.3292×1036 2.6584×1036 B2Vertices 5.3169×1036 1.063382×1037 2.1267×1037
1.8788×10109 1.5030×10110 1.2024×10111 ScalingV 9.6196×10111 7.6957×10112 6.1565×10113
299,773,657.656 299,773,656.61 299,773,659.051 Lightm/sec 299,773,674.738 299,773,658.615 299,773,656.87
Discussion: Under Construction At one time, every page looked like this page and especially the next, Notations 127 to 132. We will probably pull all of these comments (Row 12) and the row, Ontology (#11), into a separate table. Row numbers, 1-10, will also then be its own separate table. Corrections and adjustments will be made to the numbers in rows 3-7, perhaps first in light of the reduced Planck constant, then in light of any further information or logic we can discern about Planck Temperature, and then from current research of the scholar/scientists.
SCROLL RIGHT127 to 132

Construction systems, governmental systems, and weather systems have a container.

127 128 129 130 131 132
9.1729×10-6.s 1.8345×10-5.s 3.669×10-5.s T(seconds) 7.338×10-5.s 1.4676×10-4.s 2.9353×10-4.s
2.7498.km 5.499.km 10.9992 km (104) L(meters) 21.9985 km 43.9971 km 87.9942.km
3.7031×1029kg 7.4062×1029kg 1.4812×1030kg M(kilograms) 2.9625×1030kg 5.925×1030kg 1.1850×1031kg
3.1911×1020C 6.3823×1020C 1.2764×1021C C(Coulombs) 2.5529×1021C 5.1058×1021C 1.0211×1022C
3.7503×109K 7.5006×109K 1.5001×1010K T(Kelvin) 3.0002×1010K 6.0005×1010K 1.2001×1011K
4.2535×1037 8.5070×1037 1.7014×1038 B2Vertices 3.4028×1038 6.8056×1038 1.3611×1039
4.9252×10114 3.9402×10115 3.1521×10116 ScalingV 2.5217×10117 2.0173×10118 1.6139×10119
299,773,655.23 299,773,666.022 299,773,658.942 Lightm/sec 299,773,658.942 299,773,663.027 299,773,663.027
Discussion: We have work to do!These domains are where we work and play and ask questions and search for answers.
Notes and references: Here is a link to the Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling. From notations 127 to 200+ the actual number of vertices are stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.
SCROLL RIGHT133 to 138

Transitions between the Human Scale Universe and Large Scale Universe

133 134 135 136 137 138
5.8707×10-4.s 1.1741×10-3.s 2.348×10-3.s T(seconds) 4.6965×10-3.s 9.3931×10-3.s 1.8786×10-2.s
175.9885.km (105) 351.977.km 703.9543.km L(meters) 1407.9087.km (106) 2815.8174.km 5631.6349.km
2.3700×1031kg 4.7400×1031kg 9.4800×1031kg M(kilograms) 1.8960×1032kg 3.7920×1032kg 7.5840×1032kg
2.0423×1022C 4.0846×1022C 8.1693×1022C C(Coulombs) 1.6338×1023C 3.2677×1023C 6.5354×1023C
2.4002×1011 K 4.8004×1011 K 9.6008×1011 K T(Kelvin) 1.9201×1012 K 3.8403×1012 K 7.6806×1012 K
2.7222×1039 5.4445×1039 1.088×1040 B2Vertices 2.1778×1040 4.3556×1040 8.7112×1040
1.29112×10120 1.0328×10121 8.2631×10121 ScalingV 6.6105×10122 5.2884×10123 4.2307×10124
299,773,656.389 299,773,657.92 299,773,656.644 Light m/sec 299,773,813.655 299,773,822.172 299,773,659.408
Ontology Orbit@1750.mi
The Electroweak Epoch (now renamed Electroweak Processes). Requiring an estimated temperature of 2×1012 Kelvin to create the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), this process could begin as early as notations 136 and 137. It requires 175 MeV per particle. We’ll need help to figure that out!
The universe is less than one-hundreth of second from its start.
It is in this range that Steven Weinberg begins his popular book, The First Three Minutes. His assumption appears to be that nothing particularly different or interesting or important occurs prior to the 138th notation.
From the Perspective of Planck Length, The Large-Scale Universe Begins Within This Cluster.The scales by length are 67.4 + 67.4 + 67.4, small scale, human scale, and large scale. Yet, the scale by time would be within the 197th notation when the universe has expanded into the 343 million years.
Our eight key time measurements:

  • One second: Between the 143rd and 144th notations.
  • One day: At 86,400 seconds, it is between the 160th and 161st notations.
  • One week: At 604,800 seconds, it is within the 163rd notation.
  • One month: An average of 2,629,746 seconds, it is within the 165th notation.
  • One year: An average of 31,556,952 seconds, it is between the 168th and 169th notations.
  • One millennium: 1000 years, an average of 31,556,952,000 seconds, it is between the 178th and 179th notations.
  • One million years: An average of 31,556,952,000,000 seconds, it is between the 188th and 189th notations.
  • One billion years, an aeon: An average of 31,556,952,000,000,000 seconds, it is between the 198th and 199th notations.

Link to Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling: From notations 139 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here</a


SCROLL RIGHT139 to 144

The first second of creation completes between notations 143 and 144.

139 140 141 – Steps – 142 143 144
3.7572×10-2.s 7.5145×10-2.s .15029×10.s T(seconds) .30058.s .60116.s 1.2023.s
11,263.2699.km (107) 22,526.5398.km 45,053.079.km L(meters) 90,106.158.km 180,212.316 km (108) 360,424.632.km
1.5168×1033kg 3.0336×1033kg 6.0672×1033kg M(kilograms) 1.2134×1034kg 2.4268×1034kg 4.8537×1034kg
1.3070×1024C 2.6141×1024C 5.2283×1024C C(Coulombs) 1.0456×1025C 2.0913×1025C 4.1827×1025C
1.5361×1013 K 3.0722×1013 K 6.1445×1013 K T(Kelvin) 1.2289×1014 K 2.4578×1014 K 4.9156×1014 K
1.74224×1041 3.4844×1041 6.96898×1041 B2Vertices 1.3937×1042 2.78759×1042 5.57518×1042
3.3846×10125 2.7076×10126 2.1661×10127 ScalingV 1.73291×10128 1.38634×10129 1.109×10130
299,778,289.684 299,774,300.353 299,774,296.36 Light m/sec 299,774,296.4 299,774,296.4 299,774,296.4
Ontology Earth-to-moon*
Discussion: All these notations are still being double checked and cross referenced to the other three key charts. We will correct simple math errors as quickly as possible. For example, 360,424.632 divided by 1.20232 at the 144th notation is equal to 299,774,296.4 and not 299,773,654.24 (once listed above). Before changing it as we did just now when we recalculated notation 143, we’ll attempt to discern why these discrepancies occurred in the first place. Update: October 6, 2018
One minute and one hour of creation have been noted
. The figures at one day (Notation 160), one week, one month, one year, one millennium and one aeon (1 billion years) are all important clues to interpret the meaning of each notation.
Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: Is there a formula that begins to bind all notations deeper than exponentiation? Could an essence of light do it?

Formula #1

We start with a most simple formula. Divide each value along the Planck Length scale by its corresponding value along the Planck Time, the result should approximate the speed of light (kilometers per second) at every one of the 202 notations.

The logic bears out. First, we used the closest possible Planck Time and Planck Length multiples to one second, .6011 seconds and 1.202 seconds at notations 143 and 144 respectively.

The first simple calculation: The simple formula is to divide 180,212.316 kilometers by 6.0116 seconds. That calculation gives us a figure of 299,774,296.4 meters/second.

Dividing 360,424.632 kilometers by 1.20232 seconds also gives us a figure of 299,774,296.4 meters/second.

The experimentally defined measurement for the speed of light per second is 299,792.458 km/second.

Is this a variable speed of light? If the calculation is based on the ratio of 1.20232257536 seconds to 360424.632 kilometers, it renders a figure of 299,773.654248 km/second. It’s obvious there are many questions yet to be framed and used as a guideline, i.e. “Is it important that we test with an equal number of decimal units for time and length?”

Today, the results within every notation are a rather unique calculation for the speed of light, and the results appear to be a variable.

At 142nd notation, 90,106.158 divided by .30058(0643) equals 299,774,296.4 meters per second and at notation 143, 299,773,654.587 m/s and at 145th notation, 299,773,673.037 m/sec and at the 146thnotation, the ratio 4.80929 seconds to 1,441,698.55 km equals 299,773,677.611 m/s. Light is a ratio, a tension that defines both space and time.

How about 150 and 100?

At 100th notation, the length is 20.4877678 microns divided by 6.83441261472×10-14 seconds equals 299,773,644.861 m/s. At 150th notation, 23,067,176.8 km divided by 76.948644823 seconds equals 299,773,658.822 m/s. Mass, temperature, and charge contribute to that definition.

Analysis: Of course, it is not at all surprising that the Planck Time, Planck Length, and the speed of light correlate throughout the chart given that both Planck Time and Planck Length are defined by the speed of light.

What is surprising is that this simple formula begins to corroborate the basic integrity of the chart, base-2 exponentiation with the speed of light, and it all begs for a much deeper analysis.

Over time, we will do it. But, given our lack of depth, it will take years. We will go back through all 202 notations and do the calculations using numbers extended to the ten places. First, we’ll begin getting a sense of patterns or the lack of patterns. Are all these numbers are non-duplicating and never-ending? Perhaps these numbers, like Pi, the pentagonal gap, and the dimensionless constants, define degrees of freedom that further compute as quantum indeterminacy and uncertainty, perhaps even free will. Speculative? Of course. Crazy? Maybe. Worth the time for further analysis? Of course, it is. We’ll report the results notation by notation.

Let us now find Formula #2.

Distance earth to moon: * The mean average distance of 384,402 km (238,856 mi). That is 356,500 km (221,500 mi) at the perigee to 406,700 km (252,700 mi) at apogee.

Link to Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling: From notations 139 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here. These vertices open the discussions about the inherent geometry that should permeate this chart.

https://www.desmos.com/scientific calculator being used.

SCROLL RIGHT145 to 150

The first minute, just 60 seconds, and look how far the universe has come!

145 146 147 148 149 150
2.4046.seconds 4.8092.s 9.6185.s T(seconds) 19.237.s 38.47432.s 76.9486.s
720,849.264.km 1,441,698.528 km (109) 2,883,397.056.km L(meters) 5,766,794.112.km 11,533,588.224 km (1010) 23,067,176.488.km
9.7075×1034kg 1.9415×1035kg 3.883×1035kg M(kilograms) 7.7660×1035kg 1.5532×1036kg 3.1064×1036kg
8.3654×1025C 1.673×1026C 3.3461×1026C C(Coulombs) 6.6923×1026C 1.3384×1027C 2.6769×1027C
9.831×1014 K 1.966×1015 K 3.932×1015 K T(Kelvin) 7.865×1015 K 1.573×1016 K 3.146×1016 K
1.1150×1043 2.2300×1043 4.4601×1043 B2Vertices 8.9202×1043 1.7840×1044 3.568×1044
8.8725×10130 7.0980×10131 5.6784×10132 ScalingV 4.5427×10133 3.6341×10134 2.9073×10135
299,772,232 299,779,283 299,776,166.346 Light m/sec 299,776,166.346 299,773,673 299,773,829.387
Sun’s Diameter Ontology
Discussion: In six notations, we’ll go from two seconds to over one minute. At any point when a Planck base unit goes from a negative value to a whole value, the entire relation of the five base units and any ratios must be the subject of deep analysis. Every section highlighted in yellow will be a priority.
Still Under Construction: Here the simple calculations to approximate the speed of light, Planck Length divided by Planck Time, are in process. All the Planck-related numbers within the entire site could be updated using the reduced Planck constant.
Key questions: These notations can be looked at from several perspectives. You may find a duplicate page of these numbers where the word, Steps” has been changed to reflect that view of the data. Each step could be a cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, and/or set.
Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling: From notations 139 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

How does this first hour (3600 seconds) of creation compare with the Big Bang?

151 152 153 154 155 156
153.8972.seconds 307.794.s 615.589.s T(seconds) 1231.178.s 2462.3566.s 4924.713.s
46,134,352.896.km 92,268,705.792.km 184,537,411.584 km (1011) L(meters) 369,074,823.168.km 738,149,646.33.km 1,476,299,292.66 km (1012)
6.21283×1036kg 1.2425×1037kg 2.4851×1037kg M(kilograms) 4.9702×1037kg 9.9405×1037kg 1.9881×1038kg
5.3538×1027C 1.0707×1028C 2.1415×1028C C(Coulombs) 4.2831×1028C 8.5662×1028C 1.7132×1029C
6.292×1016 K 1.258×1017 K 2.5168×1017 K T(Kelvin) 5.0336×1017 K 1.0067×1018 K 2.013×1018 K
7.136×1044 1.427×1045 2.8544×1045 B2Vertices 5.708×1045 1.141×1046 2.283×1046
2.325×10136 1.860×10137 1.4885×10138 ScalingV 1.1908×10139 9.5268×10139 7.6214×10140
299,773,828.867 299,774,218.44 299,773,731.47 Light m/sec 299,773,731.473 299,773,658.42 299,773,670.602
Earth to Sun* Ontology Jupiter-to-Sun
The First Three Minutes Revisited: In 1977, just before Steven Weinberg received a Nobel prize, he published a book, The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe. It is filled with informed guesses about our earliest universe. In its second edition in 1993, Prof Dr. Steven Weinberg could look at his work with a sense of pride. It was nicely withstanding the test of time. Perhaps now, our highly-acclaimed university professor might want to take a second look. We are inviting him to do so. The first three minutes of the universe takes us into the 151st notation. The next 51 notations will bring us up into the current age of the universe. The 202nd doubling will provide 10.98 billion years of which only 2.9184 billion years has been generated.If time is a cycle time for the notation and for the universe… what does it mean? We do not know. We’re still trying to grasp such a notion of time.

Yet, we all know, especially Prof. Weinberg, that time is a problematic concept. In this chart of a highly-integrated, mathematical universe, a quiet expansion displaces a big bang. Time becomes derivative, finite, and quantized.

Discussion: 3600 seconds, between notations 155 and 156, account for the first hour of creation. In this model it appears that the infrastructure to create the universe to this point is the same infrastructure that sustains the universe. It appears that in this model “the first hour container” which is notation 155, is still at work today.

Note that 3600 seconds equals an hour, multiplied by the speed of light is 1,079,252,848.800 kilometers. At notation 155, 738,149,657 kilometers divided by 2462.35663434 seconds equals 299,773.658 km/second. The experimentally defined speed of light is 299,792.458 km/second.

Question: What happens to our simple calculations, Planck Length divided by Planck Time, if we were to update them using the reduced Planck constant?

Earth to Sun Between notations 152 and 153, the distance between the sun and earth is approximately 149,597,870,700 meters or about 150 million kilometers, or 93 million miles.

Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling: From notations 139 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.
Key questions: Much more analysis to come on the differences between experimental data and purely mathematical data.


THE FIRST DAY (and the infrastructure for every subsequent day)

157 158 159 160 161 162
9849.426.s 19,698.853.s 39,397.706.s T(seconds) 78,795.4122.s 157,590.82.s 315,181.649.s
2,952,598,585.km 5,905,197,170.km 11,810,394,341 km (1013) L(meters) 23,620,788,682.km 47,241,577,365.km 94,483,154,731.km
3.9762×1038kg 7.9524×1038kg 1.5904×1039kg M(kilograms) 3.1809×1039kg 6.3619×1039kg 1.2723×1040kg
3.4264×1029C 6.8529×1029C 1.3705×1030C C(Coulombs) 2.741×1030C 5.482×1030C 1.096×1031C
4.026×1018 K 8.053×1018 K 1.610×1019 K T(Kelvin) 3.221×1019 K 6.443×1019 K 1.288×1018 K
4.567×1046 9.134×1046 1.826×1047 B2Vertices 3.653×1047 7.307×1047 1.461×1048
6.097×10141 4.877×10142 3.902×10143 ScalingV 3.1217×10144 2.497×10145 1.997×10146
299,773,652.745 299,773,670.567 299,773,655.349 Light m/sec 299,773,654.613 299,773,662.99 299,773,654.43
Sun-to-Pluto Ontology 24 hours light-travel
Discussion: The First Day concludes at 86400 seconds between notations 160 and 161. The universe is about the size of our Solar System. At notation 160, it is 23,620,788,682 kilometers or 14,677,277,624.9205 miles.Many scientists and scholars use astronomical units (AU) to describe the size of the Solar System. It seems to add a level of complexity, not clarity, so we choose to continue to use meters and kilometers with an occasional conversion to miles.

The orbiting Kuiper Belt (which contains Pluto): 7.5 billion kilometers is between notations 158 and 159. So, using our Solar System as an indication of size, within the first day, the universe has grown into the outer limits our solar system, out beyond the Kuiper Belt.

Also, note that one day is 86,400 seconds. Multiplied by the laboratory-defined speed of light, 299,792.458 km/second, equals a length of 25,902,068,371.2 km or 25.9 billion km between notations 160 and 161.

Question: If the simple calculations, Planck Length divided by Planck Time, are all updated using the reduced Planck constant, what difference could it make?

Variables: 86,400 seconds multiplied by 30 is 2,592,000. Multiplied by 31 is 2,678,400. The number of seconds in a month is between these numbers. Multiplied by 365 days, the number of seconds in a year ranges from about 31,536,000 seconds to31,557,600 (using 365.25 days per year) and The SI (International System of Units) number is 365.25636 days per year.

Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling: From notations 139 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.


The first month is within notation 165. The first year begins on the edge of 168 as it become 169.

163 164 165 166 167 168
630,363.29.s 1,260,726.59.s 2,521,453.19.s T(seconds) 5,042,906.38.s 10,085,812.77.s 20,171,625.54.s
1.88966306×1014.km 3.779326×1014.km 7.558652×1014.km L(meters) 1.511730448×1015.km 3.0234609×1015.km 6.0469218×1015.km
2.544×1040kg 5.089×1040kg 1.0179×1041kg M(kilograms) 2.035×1041kg 4.071×1041kg 8.143×1041kg
2.192×1031C 4.385×1031C 8.771×1031C C(Coulombs) 1.754×1032C 3.508×1032C 7.017×1032C
2.5772×1020 K 5.1544×1020 K 1.030×1021 K T(Kelvin) 2.061×1021 K 4.123×1021 K 8.247×1021 K
2.923×1048 5.846×1048 1.169×1049 B2Vertices 2.338×1049 4.6768×1049 9.353×1049
1.598×10147 1.278×10148 1.022×10149 ScalingV 8.1834×10149 2.497×10150 6.5467×10151
299,773,652.745 299,773,650.367 299,773,649.178 Light m/sec 299,773,649.178 299,773,648.881 299,773,648.881
7-day light travel Ontology
Discussion: To determine the First Month, use 30.436875 days per month (based on a year of 365.2425 days divided by 12 months). Given there are 86,400 seconds per day, there is an average of 2,629,746 seconds per month. It is within notation 165. Multiplied by 299,792,458 m/s equals a length of 777,062,051,136,000 meters or 777,062,051,136 km, a little larger than the Planck Length and Time at 165th notation (755,865,224,00 and 29.18 days respectively).
Speed of Light. A simple calculation from notation 168 where the length is approximately 6,046,921,800,000 kilometers and the time is 20,171,625.5485 seconds, the speed of light calculates to be approximately 299,773,649.152 kilometers/second. There are many calculations within this chart that are “in process.” At some time in the future, all the Planck-related numbers within the entire site will eventually be updated using the reduced Planck constant. All numbers will be also extended to the measurement limitations suggested by the estimated standard error given within each of the equations.
Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling: From notations 139 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.
I make mistakes, and I so respect those who find them. Just today, May 12, 2019, an old friend pointed out a mistake in the chart. The kilometers measurement jumped up by a factor of 1000! I’ll begin checking further and to see what other comments, pages, and conclusions might need updating! -Bruce

The First Year and the definition of “Yearness” is within notation 169.

169 170 171 172 173 174
40,343,251.097.s 80,686,502.194.s 161,373,004.388.s T(seconds) 322,746,008.7.s 645,492,017.5.s 1,290,984,035.s
1.209384×1016.km 2.418768×1016.km 4.837537×1016.km L(meters) 9.675075×1016.km 1.935015×1017.km 3.87003×1017.km
1.628×1042kg 3.257×1042kg 6.514×1042kg M(kilograms) 1.302×1043kg 2.605×1043kg 5.211×1043kg
1.403×1033C 2.80×1033C 5.613×1033C C(Coulombs) 1.122×1034C 2.245×1034C 4.491×1034C
1.649×1022 K 3.298×1022 K 6.597×1022 K T(Kelvin) 1.319×1023 K 2.63×1023 K 5.278×1023 K
1.8707×1050 3.7414×1050 7.4828×1050 B2Vertices 1.4965×1051 2.993×1051 5.986×1051
4.1899×10152 3.3519×10153 2.6815×10154 ScalingV 2.145×10155 1.716×10156 1.372×10157
299,773,648.755 299,773,648.755 299,773,649.151 Light m/sec 299,773,649.223 299,773,649.176 299,773,649.176
Light Year Ontology
Discussion: The First Year is also known as a light year is between notations 168 and 169. Using a year of 365.2425 days and 86,400 seconds per day, there are 31,556,952 seconds per year. A year, when multiplied by the speed of light, 299,792,458 m/s equals a length of 9,460,536,207,068,016 meters or 9,460,536,207,068.016 km which is the definition of a a light year.
Approximations: The distances to astronomical objects obviously are estimates from where you are. These locations are cited to give us a little perspective.Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 169 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

1000 Years, a millennium, is between notation 178 and 179.

175 176 177 178 179 180
2,581,968,070.s 5,163,936,140.s 10,327,872,280.8.s T(seconds) 20,655,744,561.s 41,311,489,123.s 82,622,978,246.s
7.74006×1017.km 1.548012×1018.km 3.096024×1018.km L(meters) 6.192048×1018.km 1.2384096×1019.km 2.4768192×1019.km
1.042×1044kg 2.084×1044kg 4.169×1044kg M(kilograms) 8.338×1044kg 1.667×1045kg 3.335×1045kg
8.982×1034C 1.796×1035C 3.592×1035C C(Coulombs) 7.185×1035C 1.437×1036C 2.874×1036C
1.055×1024 K 2.111×1024 K 4.222×1024 K T(Kelvin) 8.444×1024 K 1.688×1025 K 3.377×1025 K
1.1972×1052 2.3945×1052 4.789×1052 B2Vertices 9.578×1052 1.915×1053 3.831×1053
8.786×10158 7.029×10159 5.623×10160 ScalingV 4.498×10161 3.599×10162 2.879×10163
299,773,649.176 299,773,649.176 299,773,652.87 Light m/sec 299,773,652.879 299,773,652.872 299,773,652.872
Discussion: The First 1000 Years: There are 31,556,952 seconds in a year and 31,556,952,000 seconds in a millennium which is between notations 178 and 179.
Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 169 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

On toward 1,000,000 Years (between notations 188 and 189)

181 182 183 184 185 186
165,245,956,493.s 330,491,912,986.s 660,983,825,972.s T(seconds) 1,321,967,651,940.s 2,643,935,303,880.s 5,287,870,607,760.s
4.95363×1019.km 9.90727×1019.km 1.98145×1020.km L(meters) 3.96291×1020.km 7.92582×1020.km 1.58564×1021.km
6.67×1045kg 1.334×1046kg 2.668×1046kg M(kilograms) 5.336×1046kg 1.067×1047kg 2.134×1047kg
5.748×1036C 1.149×1037C 2.299×1037C C(Coulombs) 4.598×1037C 9.197×1037C 1.839×1038C
6.755×1025 K 1.351×1026 K 2.702×1026 K T(Kelvin) 5.404×1026 K 1.080×1027 K 2.161×1027 K
7.6624×1053 1.5324×1054 3.0649×1054 B2Vertices 6.1299×1054 1.2259×1055 2.4519×1055
1.842×10164 1.4742×10165 1.1793×10166 ScalingV 9.4349×10166 7.547×10167 6.0383×10168
299,773,652.870 299,773,652.870 299,773,652.870 Light m/sec 299,773,649.846 299,773,652.871 299,773,652.871
Discussion: The First Million Years: Given there are 31,556,952 seconds in a year And 31,556,952,000 seconds in a millennium, there are 31,556,952,000,000 seconds in a million years (Notations 188-189) and 31,556,952,000,000,000 in a billion years. That’s over 31.5 quadrillion seconds.


Speed of Light. A simple calculation from notation 184 where the length is 3.96291068×1020 meters and the time is 1,321,967,651,940 seconds, the speed of light is 299,773,649.846 kilometers/second. The other simple calculations, Planck Length divided by Planck Time, are in process. All the Planck-related numbers within the entire site will eventually be updated using the reduced Planck constant.


Key questions: According to big bang cosmology, 150 million years was required to begin large structure formation. The European Space Agency (ESA), using data from the Planck telescope in February 2015, claimed that the earliest galaxy formed was “560 million years after the Big Bang.” That would amount to about 17,671,893,120,000,000 seconds or 17.672 quadrillion seconds between notations 197 and 198.

.Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 169 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.


1,000,000 Years (Notations 188 and 189) and toward an Aeon (one billion years).

187 188 189 190 191 192
1.0575×1014.s** 2.1151×1013.s 4.2302×1013.s T(seconds) 8.4605×1013.s 1.6921×1014.s 3.38423×1014.s
3.170×1021*.km 6.340×1021.km 1.268×1022.km L(meters) 2.536×1022.km 5.072×1022.km 1.014×1023.km
4.269×1047kg 8.538×1047kg 1.707×1048kg M(kilograms) 3.415×1048kg 6.831×1048kg 1.366×1049kg
3.679×1038C 7.358×1038C 1.471×1039C C(Coulombs) 2.943×1039C 5.886×1039C 1.177×1040C
4.323×1027 K 8.647×1027 K 1.729×1028 K T(Kelvin) 3.459×1028 K 6.918×1028 K 1.383×1029 K
4.9039×1055 9.8074×1055 1.9615×1056 B2Vertices 3.923×1056 7.846×1056 1.569×1057
4.8306×10170 3.864×10171 3.091×10172 ScalingV 2.473×10173 1.978×10174 1.582×10175
299,773,648.75 299,773,648.756 299,773,648.756 Light m/sec 299,773,648.756 299,773,648.756 299,773,648.756
* 10,575,741,215,500.s is about 335,131.8978 years, a very early in the Recombination Epoch (as defined within Big Bang).

* 21,151,482,431,000.s is about 670,263.7957 years.

* 42,302,964,862,000.s is about 1,340,527.5915 years.

* 84,605,929,724,000.s is about 2,681,055.1831 years.

* 169,211,859,448,000.s is about 5,362,110.3662 years.

* 338,423,718,896,000.s is about 10,724,220.7325 years.

.Discussion: The First Million Years: There are 31,556,952 seconds in a year, 31,556,952,000 seconds in a millennium and 31,556,952,000,000 seconds in a million years (Notations 188-189). That is 31.556955 trillion seconds.


Question: Would the simple calculation, Planck Length divided by Planck Time, continue to be within our current ranges if we were to use the reduced Planck constant?


Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 169 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.


Calculations of the Speed of Light Based on Actual Seconds: These seconds are the actual seconds. The length calculations are consistent, then the speed of light numbers are likewise consistent. Now that there are calculations across the length of the chart, we’ll go back and begin tightening up all the numbers.

* Kilometers:

187: 3.170328532484096×1018

188: 6.340657064968192×1018

189: 1.2681314129936384×1019

190: 2.5362628259872768×1019

191: 5.0725256519745536×1019

192: 1.01450513039491072×1020


** Seconds:

187: 10,575,741,215,520

188: 21,151,482,431,040

189: 42302964862080

190: 84,605,929,724,160

191: 169211859448320

192: 338423718896640


Light (KM/sec): 187. 299,773,648.756799095206157091136122160928766303621872570…

188. 299,773,648.7567990952061570911361221609287663036218725707649254…

189. 299,773,648.7567990952061570911361221609287663036218725707649254…

190. 299,773,648.7567990952061570911361221609287663036218725707649254599505854834616143307

191: 299,773,648.75679909520615709113612216092876630362187257076492545995058548346161433079279

192: 299,773,648.75679909520615709113612216092876630362187257076492545995058548346161433079279


Approaching the billion year container between notation 199 and 200.

193 194 195 196 197 198
6.7684×1014.s.* 1.3536×1015.s.* 2.7073×1015.s.* T(seconds) 5.4147×1015.s.* 1.0829×1016.s.* 2.1659×1016.s.*
2.029×1023.km 4.058×1023.km 8.116×1023.km L(meters) 1.623×1024.km 3.246×1024.km 6.492×1024.km
2.732×1049kg 5.464×1049kg 1.092×1050kg M(kilograms) 2.185×1050kg 4.371×1050kg 8.743×1050kg
2.354×1040C 4.709×1040C 9.418×1040C C(Coulombs) 1.883×1041C 3.767×1041C 7.534×1041C
2.767×1029 K 5.534×1029 K 1.106×1030 K T(Kelvin) 2.213×1030 K 4.427×1030 K 8.885×1030 K
3.138×1057 6.277×1057 1.255×1058 B2Vertices 2.5108×1058 5.021×1058 1.004×1059
1.266×10176 1.013×10177 8.104×10177 ScalingV 6.483×10178 5.188×10179 4.149×10180
299,773,648.756 299,773,648.756 299,773,648.756 Light m/sec 299,773,648.756 299,773,648.756 299,773,648.756
HD 140283
* Notation 193: 676,847,437,792,000 seconds is about 21,448,441.4651 years.

* Notation 194: 1,353,694,875,580,000 seconds is about 42,896,882.9302 years.

* Notation 195: 2,707,389,751,160,000 seconds is about 85,793,765.8605 years.

* Notation 196: 5,414,779,502,320,000 seconds is about 171.5 million years.

* Notation 197: 10,829,559,004,640,000 seconds is about 343.15 million years

* Notation 198: 21,659,118,009,280,000 seconds is about 686.806 million years.

Another stat is introduced in the thought experiment below:

* 17,671,893,120,000,000 seconds is about 560 million years after the Big Bang postulation.


.Discussion: On the approach to the first billion years of the universe, it is within these six notations that the universe as we know it begins. There are 31,556,952,000,000,000 seconds in an aeon that is a billion years, between notations 198 and 199. Our oldest stars and galactic groups are now emerging. Star systems like our Milky Way, Promima Centauri, Alpha Centauri, Sirius, Orion Nebula, Tau Ceti, and the Regulus star are also emerging within these notations.


The oldest-known galaxy: GN-z11 is located 13.4 billion light years away, just 400 million years after the first moment of the universe’s beginning. A product of Hubble Space Telescope, Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS).


A little thought experiment: Using the big bang epochal definitions, it took 150 million years to begin large-scale structure formation and another 560 million years after that epoch to evolve with a single galaxy. One might posit this conjecture: It takes 410 million years to make a galaxy. However, one might also posit that with each successive evolution, there is an efficiency that is introduced. If there are two trillion galaxies as announced by NASA, ESA,and the Hubble Telescope website as well as by other cooperative institutions like RAS, on October 13, 2016, there must be an order of creation. We are positing, using the simple logic of base-2 exponentiation, between 560 million years and 13.8 billion years, there are no less than 43 “galaxy doublings” which would give us just over two trillion galaxies. For more on that progression to a trillion, follow line 7, B2=Vertices, from the first notations to the 42nd and 43rd notations.


Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 169 to 202+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.


How many atoms in the observable universe? This generally-accepted calculation may need updating! Estimated between 1078 and 1082 atoms. Please note that the scaling vertices within notation 200 are well beyond it: 2.655×10182


Speed of Light Calculations: Using actual seconds and more consistent length calculations, the speed of light numbers are, of course, likewise consistent. As of February 28, 2017, with calculations across the length of the chart, recalculations of all the numbers will commence.


193: 2.02901026078982144×1023

194: 4.05802052157964288×1023

195: 8.11604104315928576×1023

196: 1.623208208631857152×1024

197: 3.246416417263714304×1024

198: 6.492832834527428608×1024


** Seconds:

193: 676,847,437,793,280

194: 1,353,694,875,586,560

195: 2,707,389,751,173,120

196: 5,414,779,502,346,240

197: 10,829,559,004,692,480

198: 21,659,118,009,384,960


Light (KM/sec):

193. 299,773,648.7567990952061570911361221609287663036218725707649254…

194. 299,773,648.7567990952061570911361221609287663036218725707649254…

195. 299,773,648.7567990952061570911361221609287663036218725707649254599505854834616143307

196: 299,773,648.75679909520615709113612216092876630362187257076492545995058548346161433079279

197: 299,773,648.75679909520615709113612216092876630362187257076492545995058548346161433079279

198: 299,773,648.75679909520615709113612216092876630362187257076492545995058548346161433079279

Notations 199 to 204 of 200+

Our little universe with just 202 notations is still expanding.

199 200 201 202 203 204
4.331×1016.s.* 8.663×1016.s.* 1.732×1017.s.* T(seconds) 3.4654×1017.s.* Age of the Universe
1.298×1025.km 2.597×1025.km 5.194×1025.km L(meters) 1.038×1026.km 2.077×1026.km 4.155×1026.km
1.748×1051kg 3.497×1051kg 6.995×1051kg M(kilograms) 1.399×1052kg 2.798×1052kg 5.596×1052kg
1.506×1042C 3.013×1042C 6.027×1042C C(Coulombs) 1.205×1043C 2.411×1043C 4.822×1043C
1.77×1031 K 3.542×1031 K 7.084×1031 K T(Kelvin) 1.416808(33)×1032.K PLANCK TEMPERATURE
2.008×1059 4.017×1059 8.034×1059 B2Vertices 1.606×1060 3.213×1060 6.427×1060
3.319×10181 2.655×10182 2.124×10183 ScalingV 1.699×10184 1.087×10185 8.702×10185
299,773,651.782 299,773,654.856 299,773,651.782 Light m/sec 299,773,650.628
* Notation 199: 43,318,236,018,400,000 seconds (1.3727 billion years)

* Notation 200: 86,636,472,036,800,000 seconds (2.744 billion years)

* Notation 201: 173,272,944,073,600,000 seconds (5.4908 billion years)
* Notation 202: 346,545,888,147,200,000 seconds (10.9816 billion years)
Discussion: The Fullness of Time The first billion years of the universe, an aeon, comes within Notation 198, then comes 1.37 billion years with Notation 199, then 2.7 billion years with notation 200, 5.4 at 201, and 10.98 at 202.
If time is imputed to be discrete and quantized, the aggregate of all notations must be added to determine the actual first aeon. There are 31,556,952,000,000,000 seconds in an AEON. That’s 31.5 quadrillion seconds. For now, that emerges between notations 198 and 199.
Let us double-check that number to be sure. 60 seconds to a minute, 360 seconds to an hour, 8640 seconds to a day, approximately 31,556,952 seconds in an adjusted year, 31,556,952,000,000,000 in a billion years. Next, 13.8 × 31,556,952,000,000,000 equals 436,117,076,640,000,000± or 435+ quadrillion seconds, the approximate age of the universe. Doesn’t sound possible, does it?


In terms of notations, if time is discrete, it would be the sum of every prior notation plus the current notation so it would come within the notations 202 to 203.


That same logic would apply to the Age of the Universe in seconds. Notation 201 is 173,272,944,073,600,000 seconds or 5.4 billion years. The sum total of all notations from the Planck Time to the 201st notation is one Planck Time unit less than 173,272,944,073,600,000 seconds. We should round up! So, the universe today, using the straight Planck Length and Planck time is within the earliest part of notation 202 using 13.8± billion years for the Age of the Universe.


It should be noted that we have not used the reduced Planck constant (equal to the Planck constant divided by 2π, and is denoted ħ or h-bar) as advocated by Larens Imanyuel, Director at Genesis Project in San Francisco. We will. Then, we’ll maintain this chart as a legacy piece and update it and all other charts with the reduced Planck constant if there is a consensus among the scholars.


How many seconds old is the universe? Somewhere around 435 quadrillion seconds plus or minus 3%. Each day adds another 86,400 seconds. Each year adds approximately 31.5 million seconds.


Basic math: There are 31.5 quadrillion seconds in a billion years multiplied by 13.8 gives us 435.48 quadrillion seconds.
Now, that’s an interesting piece of information: If the universe is 435.48 quadrillion seconds old, is there such a thing as Poincare recurrence? Somehow a second is not a second within certain symmetry groups. That may well be true, but if we impute time’s first function to be a measurement of light within a particular domain, that symmetry is established within the domain alone. Perhaps it could be said that it is a speed at which things communicate within a domain. Also, given the domain (or notation, doubling, container, group, set, cluster) apparently has no less five fundamental determinants, each creates a perspectival view of that notation.
Speed of Light (meters/second). A simple calculation from notation 199 where the length is 1.29856658×1025 meters and the time is 43,318,236,018,400,000 seconds, the speed of light is approximately 299,773,651.782 meters/second. Within notation 200, the length is 2.59713316×1025 meters and the time is 86,636,472,036,800,000 seconds, the speed of light is approximately 299,773,654.8567 meters/second. Within notation 201, the length is 5.19426632×1025 meters and the time is 173,272,944,073,600,000, the speed of light is also approximately 299,773,651.782 meters/second. At notation 202, that figure is 299,773,650.628 meters/second. The “official” measurement of 299,792,458 m/s is in a vacuum and does not consider inertial frames.
Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: For the large scale, notations 132 to 201+ the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.