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Notations 1 to 6 of 204
Small-scale Universe 1-67
Right Arrow Of the 200+ base-2 notations from the Planck base units to this day, 67± notations are within the small scale. The background story.
Singularity=0 Base Units 1 2 3 4 5 6
Planck.Time 5.391×10-44 (s) 1.078×10−43 (s) 2.156×10−43 (s) 4.312×10−43 (s) 8.625×10−43 (s) 1.725×10−42 (s) 3.450×10−42 (s)
Planck.Length 1.6161×10-35.(m) 3.2323×10-35.(m) 6.4647×10-35.(m) 1.2929×10-34.(m) 2.5859×10-34.(m) 5.1718×10-34.(m) 1.0343×10-33m
Planck.Mass 2.1765×10-8.(kg) 4.3530×10-8.(kg) 8.7060×10-8.(kg) 1.7412×10-7 (kg) 3.4824×10-7.(kg) 6.9648×10-7.(kg) 1.3929×10-6.(kg)
Planck.Charge 1.8755×10-18 (C) 3.7511×10-18 (C) 7.5023×10-18 (C) 1.5004×10-17 (C) 3.0009×10-17.(C) 6.0019×10-17.(C) 1.2003×10-16.(C)
Planck.Temp 1.4168×1032 (K) 4.4084×10-27 (K) 8.816×10-27 (K) 1.763×10-26 (K) 1.763×10-26 (K) 3.526×10-26 (K) 7.053×10-26 (K)
Base-2 Vertices (×2) 1 1 2 4 8 16
Scaling Vertices (×8) 1 8 64 512 4096 32768
Speed of light (m/sec) 299,791,692.172 299,792,155.9 299,790,300.98 299,792,613.83 299,792,613.837 299,792,613.83
Ontology Form 1: Sphere Form 2: Spheres Form 3: Stack Form 4: Pointfree 5: Geometries 6: Trigonometrics
The big bang theory in light of a quiet expansion of 201+ notations.
Three questions open up a more simple mathematical model of the universe:
1. Can this model, a Quiet Expansion (QE), actually defuse the big bang? The math within the QE model could redefine the first four “epochs”(and most-key elements) of the big bang theory (bbt). If it is defused and becomes an historic statement, From Lemaître to Hawking, science can move on within somewhat-prescribed boundary conditions and known parameters. The first four epochs of the big bang theory can readily be subjected to redefinition. These “epochs” amount to less than a trillionth-of-a-trillionth a second.
2. Are ethics and values built into the fabric of the universe? The QE model establishes a simple continuity equation from the first moment in time through the Age of the Universe (this day and this moment). These simple mathematical constructions quickly evolve as geometrical constructions and symmetry groups. Mathematically the constructions become quite dynamic and some harmonic. Continuity, symmetry and harmony are the foundations for a natural value equation deep-seated within the universe. Most every flavor of ethics, morals, and values can be appreciated for what they do and don’t do, and for why they are.
3. How can we more fully understand the finite-infinite relation? This finite-infinite relation is perhaps best described as a study of perfection and moments of perfection and that the geometries and mathematics of imperfection are also better defined and understood as a result and known today as quantum mechanics.Consider the four epochs in question:Planck Epoch or a Planck Moment: The finite-infinite relation most intimately defines the first notation and is necessarily within all notations building from the first. An infinitesimal duration, it is the beginning that creates space and time and then extends within space and time much like the birthing process. As of today, the Planck base units are our simplest-deepest-best description of this moment.Grand Unification and the Electroweak Epochs or Processes: Based on the fact that entities and things require a necessary amount of space that only becomes available from the 67th notation and above, the first 60 to 66 notations are foundational to all notations. Using the analogy of the birthing process, all the forms-and-functions, then processes-and-procedures, and then relations-and-systems prior to the actual birthing event, are the first 60 or so notations. Here that finite-infinite relation creates the foundational order, the most basic relations, and many dynamical systems prior to the uniqueness of every reasonable analogue to the birthing event.The Grand Unification processes continue beyond the 67th notation as specific Unification processes. The electroweak processes now begin to manifest and the measurements given by the big bang theorists can be tweaked and integrated within the Quiet Expansion model.

Inflationary Epoch or Processes: Just as there are still many many questions about cellular division, there are even more open questions within this model. However, the force, the infinitesimal amount of energy, available to this process are working ratios of the Planck base units whereby order, relations, and dynamics evolve with a perfect continuity, perfect symmetry, and a deep harmony within every sphere and basic structure. This concept was initially put forth as a philosophical orientation to life, and then it was explored in a post about numbers called,
On Constructing the Universe From Scratch (see pages 5 and 6)
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Background Introduction: This is page 1 of 37. Here, side-by-side, all 37 pages can be horizontally-scrolled as a single page. It is the entire model of the universe called, Big Board – little universe. The vertically-scrolled chart was completed in February 2015. The first chart was done in December 2011. Here we continue the process of encapsulating everything, everywhere in the universe, throughout all time. Though this chart suggests that space-time-mass-energy-temperature are necessarily and inextricably related, the challenge of this model is to demonstrate how this is so. This work is quite at odds with the big bang theory (bbt), yet we believe every formula and relation defined throughout the bbt history can also be found within our emerging model and view of the universe. To broaden its perspective, we will also attempt to examine as many transitions as possible between the finite-infinite, especially the role of pi, projective geometries, bifurcation theory, the dimensionless constants, and number theory.

Key concept: Planck Temperature has been moved to the top of the chart. One of the working assumptions of the project is that everything starts most simply and complexity comes later, and that space-and-time are finite, discrete, derivative and quantized. Of course, this logic will be further discussed.

Key questions: What mathematics are at work? The simple answer is, “All mathematics are at work here. No formula is exempt. And, eventually every formula will be in some way tied back to this model.” Notwithstanding, here is our first, introductory post about numbers.

Speed of Light: A simple calculation is to divide the Planck Length by Planck Time. Using just the units displayed above, the result is 299,777,406.78 m/sec. Using 3.23239/1.078212 the result is 2.99791692172 or 299,791,692.172 m/sec. These simple results, first posted on May 3, 2016, will be tweaked. Of course, the result of experimental measurement is 299,792,458 meters/second in a vacuum. Within notation 3, it is 1.29295 divided by 4.312848 which equals 299,790,300.98. There is much more to come!

Entitive Manifestations: Though not an active row until July 4, 2016, the nature of thingness has been part of our mindscape for many, many years going back to Martin Heidegger’s key question, What is a thing? Our first charts of the Big Board-little universe all focused on things determined by the multiple of the Planck Length. All the data from those earlier charts will now be integrated within our horizontally-scrolled chart.

Help wanted: For every notation, we would like to have an expert and a team. Within this group of notations, we especially seek help from people who can help us re-enact Max Planck’s thinking and the veracity of each formulation of the Planck base units.

Can you help us?

Key words, primary concepts, and links to references for these ten notations:
1. Geometries: Projective, Euclidean, differential (Riemannian, Lie groups, etc), discrete and combinatorial, algebraic and transformational…
2. The Pre-Measureable Structure of Matter: Might we conclude that this Small-Scale Universe is the structure that holds things together? Is it a re-definition of the ether? Is it MIT Frank Wilczek’s grid?
3. Renormalization(Scale Invariance https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scale_invariance), Universality, isotropy, homogeneity: Is it possible that everything-everywhere in the universe shares the first 67 notations, and uniquely evolves with those characteristics given within the 67th to 134th notations, and then begins to manifest in each of the large-scale notations, unfolding uniquely in the 201st as “the given within the current moment”?

Editor’s note: Can you help upgrade that last sentence? I’ll be profoundly grateful. -BEC

Finite-Infinite: Studied throughout the history of humanity, this model provides a basis for a thorough reexamination of the concepts, mathematics and principles that operate between the two. Already there are several posts that open these reflections: (1) What is finite? And, what is truly infinite? and (2) Finite-Infinite reflections.

Design thoughts:
1. The areas above and below the numbers and discussions could also be used for graphics that are related to these notations. Perhaps a color background could reflect its temperature in its part of the universe.
2. Perhaps the area above the “Big Board-little universe” title (underlined) can be used for related graphics and color.
3. This “one page” board ideally would be a wiki page where schools and universities and the public could collaborate, update and add data.
4. Base-2 notation from the five Planck Base Units to their maximums is still early-stage work. We’ll be adding dimensionless constants. Could this table be a spreadsheet? April 27, 2016: More updating to come.

Process: Examples of Horizontal Scrolling Horizontal Scrolling Example #1, #2, #3 and #4 (pop up windows).

SCROLL RIGHT OR LEFT7 to 12
Notice the Scaling Vertices are already over 8 Million at the 12th notation
7 8 9 <-Doublings->
10 11 12
6.900556×10-42s 1.380111×10-41s 2.760222×10-41s T(s) 5.52044×10-41s 1.10408×10-40s 2.20817×10-40s
2.06873×10-33m 4.13747×10-33m 8.274943×10-33m L(m) 1.654988×10-32m 3.309977×10-32m 6.619955×10-32m
2.78593×10 -6kg 5.57186×10-6kg 1.11437×10 -5kg M(kg) 2.22874×10 -5kg 4.45749×10-5kg 8.91498×10-5kg
2.400762×10-16C 4.801525×10-16C 9.603051×10-16C C(Coulombs) 1.920610×10-15C 3.841220×10-15C 7.682441×10-15C
2.821431×10-25K 5.642862×10-25K 1.128572×10-24K T(Kelvin) 2.257145×10-24K 4.514290×10-24K 9.028580×10-24K
32 64 128 B2 Vertices 256 512 1024
262,144 2,097,152 16,777,216 ScalingV 134,217,728 1,073,741,824 8,589,934,592
299,791,784.89 299,792,552.918 299,792,661.605 Light m/sec 299,792,770.14 299,794,398.957 299,793,720.592
Discussion: This fledgling model of the universe, to gain a little respect, will be required to incorporate the extensive work that has gone into the parametrization of ΛCDM (Lambda cold dark matter) or Lambda-CDM model. To begin that process, people have been challenged to find those formulas embedded within this model.

Speed of Light: These simple calculations are listed to challenge us to think of the processes and relations between numbers. This ratio, the notational multiples of the Planck Length to Planck Time, is very basic. Again, the experimental measurement is 299,792,458 meters/second in a vacuum. Within notation 7, the simple result of the numbers are given above. 299,791,784.89 m/s. Then variations are still difficult to discern. We will attempt to find the resolution of Planck Length and Planck Time carried out ten decimal places each and do recalculations.

Tweet and Retweet
“Light: The ratio between Planck Time/Planck Length along all 201+ base-2 exponentiations from the Planck base units.”

“Let there be light! https://bbludata.wordpress.com/1-204/ Observe the 10th row. Planck Length/Planck Time ratio along 201+ notations!”

“Help interpret the math?!? https://bbludata.wordpress.com/1-204/ Background: In early May, some among us began asking the question, “Could the Big Bang theory implode?” Others made projects, “Perhaps we might start a movement to blow up the big bang. It’s inherent nihilism is making a mess of this little world.” May 2016

Key observation: These five Planck base units are intimately woven. There are hundreds of calculations to test between them.

Prediction: All the dimensionless constants will all be discerned among those calculations! The fabric of life is just beginning to be woven. The numbers are so small, meaning has yet to be imputed to them. Here it seems that we are in the domain of ontology and ontological designing, pointfree or incidence geometries, and systems philosophy.

Key Questions: Do these notations give the ontological studies a possible domain within which to work? Is there also a place within these notations for the mind? (This discussion/observations/questions/inquiry was begun on May 6, 2016. It is “to be continued” UNTIL all 204 notations have been addressed.)

Key words: (primary concepts and links to references for these six notations) What about the placement of the Planck temperature? Do the calculations of Max Planck warrant that it be placed with the others at bottom of the chart?

Open: Your questions and comments are always welcomed.

Help wanted: For every notation, we would like to have an expert and a team. Within this group of notations, we seek help from those people expert in combinatorics, cellular automaton, cubic close packing, bifurcation theory (with Mitchell Feigenbaum’s constants), the Langlands program, mereotopology and point-free geometry (A.N. Whitehead, Harvard, 1929), the 80-known binary operations, and scalar field theory. Can you help us?

SCROLL TO THE RIGHT13 to 18
The number of Scaling Vertices could now support any and all geometries.
13 14 15 <-Steps->
16 17 18
4.416356×10-40s 8.832712×10-40s 1.766542×10-39s T(seconds) 3.53085×10-39s 7.06617×10-39s 1.413234×10-38s
1.323991×10-31m 2.647982×10-31m 5.295964×10-31m L(meters) 1.059192×10-30m 2.118385×10-30m 4.236771×10-30m
1.782996×10-4kg 3.565993×10-4kg 7.131987×10-4kg M(kilograms) 1.426397×10-3kg 2.852795×10-3kg 5.705590×10-3kg
1.53648×10-14C 3.07297×10-14C 6.14595×10-14C C(Coulombs) 1.229190×10-13C 2.458381×10-13C 4.916762×10-13C
1.805716×10-23K 3.611432×10-23K 7.222864×10-23K T(Kelvin) 1.444572×10-22K 2.889145×10-22K 5.778291×10-22K
2048 4096 8192 B2Vertices 16,384 32,768 65,536
68,719,476,736 549,755,813,888 4.3980465×1012 ScalingV 3.5184372×1013 2.8147497×1014 2.2517998×1015
299,792,634.47 299,792,634.47 299,792,702.353 Light m/sec 299,982,157.27 299,792,532.58 299,792,603.348
Discussion: Since the first Big Board-little universe in December 2011, there have been many other charts and posts to begin to discern the meaning and value of these all these numbers. One of the simplest charts was entitled, Universe Table, The Human Scale. In this chart the Small Scale and Large Scale are compressed so most of the entries represent as many as ten notations. Within the small scale, the first group of ten are labelled “Forms” after Plato’s work in the Timeaus. The next group of ten are labelled “Ousia” after Aristotle’s work on the nature of structure.

Within another posting about numbers, the place of Pi and bifurcation theory are raised. It is within the first ten notations, this work may well be applied and developed. It could also include combinatorics, cellular automaton, cubic close packing, bifurcation theory, the Langlands program, mereotopology and point-free geometry (A.N. Whitehead, Harvard, 1929), the 80-known binary operations, and scalar field theory.

Cellular Automaton. Work being done within computer science, its logic and functions, are entirely analogous to mathematical logic, functions, and binary operations. Our studies, particularly of Steve Wolfram’s New Kind of Science, is being pursued with great expectations that some of this work uniquely applies to the first ten-to-twenty notations.

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: At last count, Pi has been computed out to over 12.1 trillion digits that form no discernible pattern and appear to be non-ending. It seems that pi holds part of the secret about the random, chaotic, statistical nature of things within quantum mechanics. The other is in the gap between the five tetrahedral cluster which is called a pentastar until a better name is posted.

Key words: Primary concepts and links to references for these six notationsOne of the supporting posts for these initial 67 notations asks the question, “Are the first 67 notations key missing links?”>Are the first 67 notations key missing links?

Help: Complete numbers of scaling vertices: 4398046511104, 35184372088832, 281474976710656; 2,251,799,813,685,248 (2.2 quadrillion)

Open: Updated, May 7, 2016, Much more work to come.

SCROLL TO THE RIGHT19 to 24
By the 20th notation there are over a quintillion Scaling Vertices.
19 20 21 <-Sets->
22 23 24
2.826468×10-38s 5.653293×10-38s 1.130658×10-37s T(seconds) 2.261317×10-37s 4.522263×10-37s 9.045269×10-37s
8.473542×10-30m 1.694708×10-29m 3.389416×10-29m Length(m) 6.778833×10-29m 1.355766×10-28m 2.711533×10-28m
1.141118×10-2kg 2.282236×10-2kg 4.564472×10-2_kg M(kilograms) 9.128944×10-2kg 1.825788×10-1kg 3.651577×10-1kg
9.8335245×10-13C 1.9667049×10-12C 3.9334098×10-12C C(Coulombs) 7.866819×10-12C 1.573363×10-11C 3.146727×10-11C
1.155658×10-21K 2.311316×10-21K 4.622633×10-21K Temp(Kelvin) 9.245266×10-21K 1.849053×10-20K 3.698106×10-20K
131,072 262,144 524,288 B2_Doublings 1,048,576 2097152 4194304
1.8014399×1016 1.4411519×1017 1.1529215×1018 ScalingV 9.223372×1018 7.378697×1019 5.902958×1020
299,792,603.348 299,773,600.97 299,773,760.058 Light m/sec 299,773,671.714 299,798,132.04 299,773,616.462
Discussion: A simple logic suggests that base-8 expansion, scaling vertices, build upon the prior notation. Nothing goes away. It is hypostatized or imputed to be the very structure of the universe that everything shares. The time within each notation could be understood to be the speed by which interactions take place. It is a duration that is infrastructure, not past-present-or-future. Within this definition, these would be pointfree vertices.

Note: https://www.mathsisfun.com/calculator-precision.html

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: What is sleep? Where is sleep? Why do living things sleep? The suspicion is that sleep is within the small-scale universe. Sleep does not activate any brain neurons (4 microns to 100 microns or notations 97 to 102), atoms or particles. More to come. This is a placeholder and today is May 8, 2016.

Key words, primary concepts, and links to references for these ten notations: Can we begin to explore the finite-infinite relation before we get too far away from notation #1. Can we assume that the simple mathematical continuity established by base-2 is meaningful? Is it a deep part of the structure of the universe? Much more work to come.

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 19 to 24 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here

SCROLL RIGHT OR LEFT 25 to 30
By the 30th notation the universe weighs about 50 pounds (23.7 kilograms)!
25 26 27 ←Domains→ 28 29 30
1.8090539×10-36s 3.6181079×10-36s 7.2362158×10-36s T(seconds) 1.4472431×10-35s 2.8944863×10-35s 5.7889726×10-35s
5.423067×10-28m 1.084613×10-27m 2.169226×10-27m L(meters) 4.338453×10-27m 8.676907×10-27m 1.735381×10-26m
7.30315×10-1kg 1.460631 kg 2.92126 kg M(kilograms) 5.84252 kg 11.685 kg 23.37 kg
6.29345510-11C 1.25869×10-10C 2.51738×10-10C C(Coulombs) 5.0347×10-10C 1.0069×10-9C 2.0139×10-9C
7.396213×10-20K 1.479242×10-19K 2.9584853×10-19K T(Kelvin) 5.916970×10-19K 1.183394×10-18K 2.366788×10-18K
8,388,608 16,777,216 33,554,432 B2Vertices 67,108,864 134,217,728 268,435,456
4.722366×1021 3.777893×1022 3.0223145×1023 ScalingV 2.4178516×1024 1.9342813×1025 1.547425×1026
299,792,603.34 299,773,600.97 299,773,760.05 Light m/sec 299,773,671.71 299,798,132.04 299,773,616.46
Discussion: The speed of light calculations are still very early-stage work. The experimental measurement is 299,792,458 meters/second in a vacuum. Within notations 25-30, simple results are given (above). To obtain more precise information, the next step will be to carry each out ten decimal places, and if that begins to suggest something, we will go out 100 places, and keep doing recalculations. Perhaps we just might find some clues along the way, i.e. begin to see some patterns, would tell us something all the dimensionless constants within those calculations.

Key questions:

Key words: Finite-infinite: Leibniz–Clarke correspondence: In the debate between Sir Isaac Newton (through Samuel Clarke), we side with the relational view of Leibniz. The Infinite appears to defined by continuity, symmetry and harmony, the perfections of order, relations, and dynamics. Of course, continuity equations are established between the Planck base units and their respective numbers at the Age of the Universe today and the Observable Universe today. We have imputed geometries from the first notations. For more, see the posting, Numbers: On Constructing the Universe From Scratch. These geometries create simple symmetries, broken symmetries, and a multiplicity of symmetry groups. At some point within the small scale universe, the symmetry have enough space and time to interact and cause dynamical moments. Within our Universe Table and UniverseView, Systems begins at notation 50.

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 25 to 30 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here

SCROLL TO THE RIGHT31 to 36
By the 36th notation the universe weighs 3297.4238 pounds (1495.6 kg)!
31 32 33 ←Steps→ 34 35 36
1.157794×10-34s 2.315589×10-34s 4.631178×10-34s T(seconds) 9.262356×10-34s 1.852471×10-33s 3.704942×10-33s
3.470762×10-26m 6.941525×10-26m 1.388305×10-25m L(meters) 2.77661×10-25m 5.55322×10-25m 1.110644×10-24m
46.79kg/(103lbs) 93.48039_kg 186.9607851_kg M(kilograms) 373.92157_kg 747.84314_kg 1.49568×103kg
4.0278116×10-9C 8.05562329×10-9C 1.6111246×10-8C C(Coulombs) 3.2222493×10-8C 6.4444986×10-8C 1.2888997×10-7C
4.733576×10-18K 9.467153×10-18K 1.89343×10-17K T(Kelvin) 3.78686×10-17K 7.57372×10-17K 1.51474×10-16K
536,870,912 1,073,741,824 2,147,483,648 B2Vertices 4,294,967,296 8,589,934,592 17,179,869,184
1.23794×1027 9.9035203×1027 7.9228163×1028 ScalingV 6.338253×1029 4.0564819×1031 3.2451855×1032
299,773,655.822 299,773,645.85 299,773,652.77 Light m/sec 299,773,671.71 299,773,655.878 299,773,655.18
An Introductory Discussion About Mass: The mass of the universe has gone from the very small side of exponential notation to start the rapid climb up the very large side of exponential notation scale. To see how rapid it rises, we’ll use the whole numbers in kilograms within the next set of six notations (and occasionally also in pounds) so you can see how quickly it gets out of reach. For example, the weight of the earth is 5.972×1024. Within which notation would you guess that much weight could be found on the scale?

Notice within notation 30, it is 23.37 kg. Notation 31 is 46.79 kilograms or about 103 pounds. Here is a pure form of mass, all those vertices aggregating as forms (structure) and function. It is an ideal substance. By notation 36, it is 1,495.68628 kilograms or over 3297 pounds. That’s about the weight of an SUV. The “Spirit of Liberty” Bell stands 6 feet tall and weighs 3,200 pounds.

By Notation 111, the universe is still a long way to becoming a second old (not until Notation 143), and it is already the mass (weight-density-force) of the earth.

Much more to come.

Key questions about mass, order, relations and dynamics: Only the Human Scale version of the Universe Table or Universe Chart is done. The small scale and large scale are summarized in blocks of no more than ten notations. The first ten are Forms or the Eidos echoing Plato. The next ten are Structure or Ousia, echoing Aristotle. Synthesizing the two, the next ten notations have been labelled Substances knowing full well that it would be another 40 to 50 notations before anything that could be defined as entitve or physical would emerge (Notations 65-69).

So mathematically there are at least 60 notations to begin to define with pure math, geometry, logic, and patience. To date, there is one posting that touches on it: On Constructing the Universe From Scratch. It is from here that we will pick up again to postulate in what ways each notation is also an archetype, clusters, containers, domains, groups, layers, and sets. We will be more closely examining the ratios at each step and doubling.

Key words, primary concepts, and links to references for this group of notations: We are consulting wiith a journal, Multiscale Modeling and Simulations (MMS), an interdisciplinary journal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SCIAM) that focuses on the fundamental modeling and computational principles underlying various multiscale methods.

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 31 to 36 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here

SCROLL RIGHT37 to 42
Now there are over one trillion simple base-2 vertices.
37 38 39 ←Steps→ 40 41 42
7.409885×10-33s 1.481977×10-32s 2.963954×10-32s T(seconds) 5.927908×10-32s 1.185581×10-31s 2.371163×10-31s
2.221288×10-24m 4.442576×10-24m 8.885153×10-24m L(meters) 1.7770306×10-23m 3.5540612×10-23m 7.1081226×10-23m
2.991372×103kg 5.982745×103kg 1.196549×104kg M(kilograms) 2.393098×104kg 4.786196×104kg 9.572392×104kg
2.577799×10-7C 5.155598×10-7C 1.031119×10-6C C(Coulombs) 2.062239×10-6C 4.124479×10-6C 8.248958×10-6C
3.0294889×10-16K 6.0589779×10-16K 1.2117955×10-15K T(Kelvin) 2.42359×10-15K 4.84718×10-15K 9.69436×10-15K
34,359,738,368 68,719,476,736 137,438,953,472 B2Vertices 274,877,906,944 549,755,813,888 1,099,511,627,776
2.5961484×1033 2.0769187×1034 1.661535×1035 ScalingV 1.329228×1036 1.0633824×1037 8.5070592×1037
299,773,613.22 299,773,613.221 299,773,646.959 Light m/sec 299,773,621.31 299,773,653.677 299,773,653.67
Continued Discussion About Mass: The visual doubling within just these six notation goes from heavy to very heavy quickly. Measurements given are in kilograms (pounds):
2991.37256
5982.74512
11,965.49024
23,930.98048
47,861.96096 (105,517.56 lbs)
95,723.92192 (211,035.123 lbs.) On the scale of a blue whale!Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: In the summer of 2016Key words, primary concepts, and links to references for these ten notations: There is much more to come!

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 37 to 42 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here

SCROLL RIGHT 43 to 48
The time and length are still so small and short, for most of us, it is still less than meaningful.
43 44 45 ←Steps→ 46 47 48
4.742326×10-31s 9.484652×10-31s 1.896930×10-30s T(seconds) 3.793861×10-30s 7.587722×10-30s 1.517544×10-29s
1.421624×10-22m 2.843249×10-22m 5.686498×10-22m L(meters) 1.137299×10-21m 2.274599×10-21m 4.5491984×10-21m
1.914478×105kg 3.828956×105kg 7.657913×105kg M(kilograms) 1.531582×106kg 3.06316×106kg 6.12633×106kg
1.649791×10-5C 3.299583×10-5C 6.599166×10-5C C(Coulombs) 1.31983×10-4C 2.63966×10-4C 5.27933×10-4C
1.93887×10-14K 3.87774×10-14K 7.75549×10-14K T(Kelvin) 1.55109×10-13K 3.102196×10-13K 6.204393×10-13K
2.1990232×1012 4.3980465×1012 8.796093×1012 B2Vertices 1.7592186×1013 3.5184372×1013 7.0368744×1013
6.8056473×1038 5.4445179×1039 4.3556143×1040 ScalingV 3.4844914×1041 2.7875931×1042 2.2300745×1043
299,773,613 299,773,613.221 299,773,646.959 Meters/second 299,773,646.95 299,773,798.669 299,773,680.679
More Examination of Increases in Mass: Along the Mass/Kilogram lines, the sizes are now growing quite large:
Notation 43: 191,447.84 kilograms (km) or 422,070 pounds
Notation 44: 382,895.68
Notation 45: 765,791.37
Notation 46: 1,531,582.75
Notation 47: 3,063,165.50
Notation 48: 6,126,331 (13,506,247 pounds or about 6753 US tons like large metal cruise ships or bulk cargo-carrying ships).Key questions about order, relations and dynamics:
The leading theory about the structure of the universe is founded within the big bang theory. It is not simple. It is not elegant. It does not respect the Planck base units. It has no causal efficacy. It is very poor theory upon which to base our sciences and our understanding of the universe.In stark contrast, this chart evolves from most minute quantities of the most basic constituents of reality. It builds incrementally. And as we will see, the it builds a universe cluster by cluster, domain by domain, one doubling at a time, with natural groups, layers and sets.Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 43 to 48 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here
SCROLL RIGHT49-to-54
Our guess is that within this domain, groups and sets become systems.
49 50 51 ←Steps→ 52 53 54
3.03508889×10-29s 6.0701777×10-29s 1.2140355×10-28s T(seconds) 2.4280711×10-28s 4.8561422×10-28s 9.7122844×10-28s
9.098396×10-21m 1.819679×10-20m 3.639358×10-20m L(meters) 7.278717×10-20m 1.455743×10-19m 2.91148×10-19m
1.225266×107kg 2.450532×107kg 4.901064×107kg M(kilograms) 9.802129×107kg 1.960425×108kg 3.920851×108kg
1.055866×10-3C 2.111733×10-3C 4.223466×10-3C C(Coulombs) 8.44693×10-3C 1.68938×10-2C 3.37877×10-2C
1.2408×10-12K 2.48175×10-12K 4.9635×10-12K T(Kelvin) 9.9270×10-12K 1.98540×10-11K 3.97081×10-11K
1.4073749×1014 2.8147498×1014 5.6294995×1014 B2Vertices 1.1258999×1015 2.2517998×1015 4.5035996×1015
1.7840596×1044 1.4272477×1045 1.1417982×1046 ScalingV 9.1343852×1046 7.3075082×1047 5.8460065×1048
299,773,625.411 299,773,596.41 299,773,606.291 Light m/sec 299,773,635.13 299,773,565.1 299,773,070.79
Notations 50 to 60: Reader warning – very rough draft! There are several fascinating articles about consciousness and the brain-mind relation [1] [2]. We know that we live within the 201 notation, 13.8 billion years from the first seconds of creation. Yet, we also know that there are multiples of the Planck length were things like particles and sub-particles could or should manifest and that these particles and sub-particles can be measured and their qualities understood. It would seem that each notation in which an entity can be first measured, and where there are the necessary relations above it and below it to create the groups and sets that make an entity manifest uniquely. These notations are a long way from current time. So, although specific notations are where entities manifest, everything must “transcend time” to be integrated as a whole within the 201 notation. Or, time is discrete, and all notations are always available to us. Each space/time (length) ratio exists uniquely, and long after it is first manifest for the first time, it continues to manifest dependent on all manifestations throughout the subsequent notations and on all prior notations.

In this context, the mind is hypostatized (imputed) to manifest within the “Systems” group which is also hypostatized to be between the 50th to 60th notations. In that context, we are now re-reading papers like [1] Mathematical Foundations of Consciousness, Willard L. Miranker and Gregg J. Zuckerman, Department of Computer Science and Mathematics, Yale University, 23 Oct 2008 and [2] The Simplest Mathematical Model of Consciousness, Roderick Wallace, New York State Psychiatric Institute, September 2, 2014.

Continued Discussion about Mass and kilograms::
49. 12,252,662.00576
50. 24,505,324.01152
51. 49,010,648.02304
52. 98,021,296.04608
53. 196,042,592.09216 is over 432,199,933 pounds
54. 392,085,184.18432

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics:
Even at the 54th notation, the other Planck base unit multiples are still infinitesimally small. We still have much to learn before we can begin postulating something special about each unit and their functions within each
container, cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step.

Notations, Exponentiations, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 49 to 54 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

Thoughts On The Variable Speed of Light Calculations: Using Notation #53 as our example, six decimals divided by six decimals equals 299,773,565.1. By using the seventh decimal within time, the new calculation is 299,773,552.76. Using #54, with seven decimals, it is 299,772,934.98. With six it is 299,772,947.33. And with five, matching the value within the space unit, is: 299,773,070.79. That could explain some of the variances, however, it does not explain the variances between notations.

Throughout the 54 notations, the highest calculation as 299,982,157 (#16) and the lowest (#3) is 299,790,300. The speed of light in a vacuum is 299,792,458. We might argue for a variable speed of light. At some point, we will average all speeds. From a cursory glance at the data, it appears that the figure will be higher than the experimental value measured in the laboratory. We might also discover that the range is always within 10% of our statistical average. Of course, we will be studying these variations and their calculations more closely.

SCROLL RIGHT 55-to-60
At the 58th notation under charge (Coulombs) the value is just over 1.
55 56 57 ←Steps→ 58 59 60
1.9424568×10-27s 3.8849137×10-27s 7.7698275×10-27s T(seconds) 1.55396551×10-26s 3.10793103×10-26s 6.215862×10-26s
5.82297×10-19m 1.16459×10-18m 2.32918×10-18m L(meters) 4.65837×10-18m 9.31675×10-18m 1.863351×10-17m
7.841670×108kg 1.568340×109kg 3.136681×109kg M(kilograms) 6.27336×109kg 1.25467×1010kg 2.50934×1010kg
6.7575465×10-2C 1.3515093×10-1C 2.7030186×10-1C C(Coulombs) .54060372 C 1.0812074 C 2.1624149 C
7.94162×10-11K 1.58832×10-10K 3.1766 ×10-10K T(Kelvin) 6.3532×10-10K 1.27065×10-9K 2.54131×10-9K
9.007199×1015×1015 1.8014398×1016 3.6028797×1016 B2Vertices 7.2057594×1016 1.4411518×1017 2.8823037×1017
4.6768052×1049 3.7414441×1050 2.9931553×1051 ScalingV 2.39452428×1052 1.91561942×1053 1.5324955×1054
299,774,511.57 299,772,710.3 299,772,710.3 Lightm/sec 299,774,125.46 299,773,482.672 299,773,643.55
Planck Charge: Notice the Planck Charge multiple has now grown to a whole number. The transition to 1 coulomb is between notations 58 and 59. At a temperature of 6.3532×10-10 Kelvin, the Mass is still superconducting and will be up to about 203 Kelvin (or -70º C or -94.27º F) which manifests between notation 106 and 107. Now we will watch the rapid rise of the coulombs value. What does it mean?

Continued Mass Analysis: Within notation 55, mass is now 1.7 billion pounds (1,728,799,734.88 lbs).
55. 784,170,368.36864 kilograms
56. 1,568,340,736.73728
57. 3,136,681,473.47456
58. 6,273,362,946.94912
59. 12,546,725,893.89824
60. 25,093,451,787.79648

What about light?: 299,773,462.143 by 7 of 5 || 299,774,511.57 by 5 on 5
299,772,424.8 by 7 on 5 || 299,772,710.3 by 5 on 5

We will continue computing the light until the entire chart is completed. Then we will average the 201 notations and highlight the smallest and largest values after checking the math! Perhaps the figures will speak to somebody in some special way.

On working with the postulations of the big bang theorists:
All the Planck base unit values are keys to interpreting the epochs within the big bang theory.
Although technically the Planck Epoch should be just the first notation (#1) we will initially be giving it the first six notations. The Grand Unification Epoch we will float from Notations 7 to 60. The Inflationary Epoch will be renamed. The Electroweak Epoch may also be downgraded from an epoch to a transition. The Quark Epoch may begin with Notation 61. It is up for grabs. Much more analysis is required. We will be using the temperature requirements of the big bang theorists to determine some of their placements. Yet, to be sure we are all on the same page, the universe is still so young, we have no instrumentation to measure such a short duration. Our first measurement of a duration will not happen until Notation 84.

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 55 to 60 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

SCROLL RIGHT 61-to-66
Finally at the 66th notation the space is large enough for the elements of particle physics.
61 62 63 ←Steps→ 64 65 66
1.2431724×10-25s 2.4863448×10-25s 4.9726896×10-25s T(seconds) 9.945379×10-25s 1.989075×10-24s 3.978151×10-24s
3.726703×10-17m 7.453406×10-17m 1.490681×10-16m L(meters) 2.981362×10-16m 5.962725×10-16m 1.19254×10-15m
5.01869×1010kg 1.00373×1011kg 2.00747×1011kg M(kilograms) 4.01495×1011kg 8.02990×1011kg 1.60598×1012kg
4.3248298_C 8.6496596_C 17.299319_C C(Coulombs) 34.59863_C 69.19727_C 138.3945_C
5.08263×10-9K 1.01652×10-8K 2.03305×10-8K T(Kelvin) 4.06611×10-8K 8.13222×10-8K 1.62644×10K
5.7646075×1017 1.1529215×1018 2.305843×1018 B2Vertices 4.611686×1018 9.223372×1018 1.8446744×1019
1.2259964×1055 9.8079715×1055 7.8463772×1056 ScalingV 6.2771017×1057 5.0216814×1058 4.0173451×1059
299,773,764.18 299,773,764.187 299,773,764.187 ScalingV 299,773,593.34 299,773,764.187 299,772,507.32
The Quark Epoch: Here the big bang theory outline for reality begins to work within this simple model using base-2 exponential notation and the Planck base units as the starting point. The post is titled, “How did the universe begin? And, what does it mean? Could a Quiet Expansion defuse the Big Bang?”

Key question:
Who can validate or invalidate this simple model? Your suggestions are invited.

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 61 to 66 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here

SCROLL RIGHT67-to-72
Transitions from the Small Scale to the Human Scale
67 68 69 ←Steps→ 70 71 72
7.95630×10-24s 1.59126×10-23s 3.18252×10-23s T(seconds) 6.36504×10-23s 1.273008×10-22s 2.546017×10-22s
2.38509×10-17m 4.77018×10-17m 9.54036×10-16m L(meters) 1.90807×10-16m 3.81614×10-16m 7.6322×10-14m
3.211962×1012kg 6.423923×1012kg 1.284784×1013kg M(kilograms) 2.569569×1013kg 5.139138×1013kg 1.027827×1014kg
276.78910_C 553.57821_C 1.107156×103C C(Coulombs) 2.214312×103C 4.428625×103C 8.857251×103C
3.25288×10-7K 6.50576×10-7K 1.301152×10-6K T(Kelvin) 2.602304×10-6K 5.204608×10-6K 1.04092164×10-5K
3.6893488×1019 7.3786976×1019 1.4757395×1020 B2Vertices 2.9514791×1020 5.9029581×1020 1.1805916×1021
3.2138761×1060 2.5711009×1061 2.0568806×1062 ScalingV 1.6455046×1063 1.3164036×1064 1.0531229×1065
299,773,755.65 299,773,764.187 299,773,764.187 Lightm/sec 299,773,449.97 299,773,449.97 299,772,191.673
Re-examining the big bang theory bbt in light of this quiet expansion of 201+ notations:: In this transition from the small-scale to human-scale universe, it is important to take stock of where we are in the universe. First, the 67th notation marks “one-third of 201.”

Though called the human-scale, Notation 67 to 134 are still very much a part of the infinitesimally small universe. At notation 134, the time duration is still 1.1741×10-3 seconds (one thousandth of a second). The first second of the universe is between notations 143 and 144.

Within the bbt, however, theorists are gaining some confidence because they can now confirm their concepts through experimentation and measurements. Most of the problems they will now encounter are due to the assumptions made to justify the four prior periods. Their contortions diminish the theory. They only have highly-theoretical data to justify the first four epochs of their theory. Up to about this point there has been no observational data from cosmology, astrophysics, particle physics, and theoretical physics to support their claims.

We are not yet aware of any problems the quiet expansion creates for this group at this point in the cosmic picture.

Within the QE Planck length scale, the fermion and proton could emerge within the 67th notation. Yet, according to big bang theorists, the Quark Epoch goes from about Notation 40 to Notation 100, the Hadron Epoch from 100 to 150, and the Lepton and the Photon Epochs from about 140 to 150.

As we move up the scale to 150, we can speculate about how each notation continues to evolve based on what is happening in the larger notations “above” it.

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step…more to come

Link to Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling: From notations 67 to 72 the actual number of vertices can be accessed by clicking here, the beginning of the Human Scale and end of the small-scale universe.

Notes and references: More to come.

SCROLL RIGHT73-to-78
Within these notations questions will be raised about periodicity and frequencies.
73 74 75 ←Steps→ 76 77 78
5.09203×10-22s 1.01841×10-21s 2.0368×10-21s T(s) 4.0736×10-21s 8.1472×10-21s 1.6294×10-20s
1.5264×10-13m 3.0529×10-13m 6.1058×10-13m L(m) 1.2211×10-12m 2.4423×10-12m 4.8846×10-12m
2.0556×1014kg 4.1113×1014kg 8.2226×1014kg M(kg) 1.6445×1015kg 3.2890×1015kg 6.5780×1015kg
1.7714×104C 3.5429×104C 7.0858×104C C(Coulombs) 1.4171×105C 2.8343×105C 5.6686×105C
2.0818×10-5K 4.1636×10-5K 8.3273×10-5K T(Kelvin) 1.6654×10-4K 3.3309×10-4K 6.6619×10-4K
2.36118×1021 4.72236×1021 9.44473×1021 B2Vertices 1.888946×1022 3.777893×1022 7.555786×1022
8.42498×1065 6.73998×1066 5.39198×1067 ScalingV 4.313×1068 3.450×1069 2.760×1070
Lightm/sec
Discussion: Work continues on Thursday, July 7, 2016

Discussion:
Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 73 to 78 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here

79 to 84
Containers for all the elements of the Periodic Table begin to manifest.
79 80 81 <-Steps->
82 83 84
3.2589×10-20s 6.5178×10-20s 1.30356×10-19s T(seconds) 2.6071×10-19s 5.2142×10-19s 1.0428×10-18s
9.7693×10-12m 1.9538×10-11m 3.9077×10-11m L(meters) 7.8154×10-11m 1.5630×10-10m 3.12618×10-10m
1.3156×1016kg 2.6312×1016kg 5.2624×1016kg M(kilograms) 1.0524×1017kg 2.1049×1017kg 4.20998×1017kg
1.1337×106C 2.2674×106C 4.5349×106C C(Coulombs) 9.0698×106C 1.8139×107C 3.6279×108C
1.33238×10-3K 2.66476×10-3K 5.32953×10-3K T(Kelvin) 1.0659×10-2K 2.1318×10-2K 4.2636×10-2K
1.51115×1023 3.0223×1023 6.0446×1023 B2Vertices 1.20892×1024 2.41785×1024 4.83570×1024
2.2085×1071 1.7668×1072 1.4134×1073 ScalingV 1.1307×1074 9.046×1074 7.237×1075
Lightm/sec
Discussion: The first moment of measurable time will come up within Notation 87.

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 79 to 84 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here

85 to 90
Now all the elements of the Periodic Table have a container.
85 86 87 <-Steps->
88 89 90
2.0856×10-18s 4.1713×10-18s 8.3427×10-18s T(seconds) 1.6685×10-17s 3.3371×10-17s 6.6742×10-17s
6.25237×10-10m 1.2547×10-9m 2.500×10-9m L(meters) 5.000×10-9m 1.000×10-8 s 2.0000×10-8m
8.4199×1017kg 1.6839×1018kg 3.3679×1018kg M(kilograms) 6.7359×1018kg 1.3471×1019kg 2.6943×1019kg
7.2558×107C 1.4511×108C 2.9023×108C C(Coulombs) 5.8046×108C 1.1609×109C 2.3218×109C
.00088527 K .0017054 K .0034109 K T(Kelvin) .0068218 K .0136430 K .0272872 K
9.6714×1024 1.9342×1025 3.8685×1025 B2Vertices 7.73712×1025 1.54742×1026 3.09485×1026
5.7896×1076 4.6316×1077 3.7053×1078 ScalingV 2.9642×1079 2.3714×1080 1.8971×1081
Lightm/sec
Discussion: The smallest moment of measurable time by machines in a laboratory is manifests within Notation 87. That record, set in 2010, is 12 attoseconds (1.2 × 10−17 seconds), about 3.7×1026 Planck times. To remind us of the obvious, the universe is still substantially less than a second in existence! Complexity is now rather dazzling.Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 85 to 90 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here

91 to 96
Now all the elements of the Periodic Table have a container.
91 92 93 <-Steps->
94 95 96
1.3348×10-16s 2.6696×10-16s 5.3393×10-16s T(seconds) 1.0678×10-15s 2.1357×10-15s 4.2715×10-15s
4.0015×10-8m 8.0030×10-8m 1.600×10-7m L(meters) 3.201×10-7m 6.402×10-7m 1.28.microns
5.3887×1019kg 1.0777×1020kg 2.1555×1020kg M(kilograms) 4.3110×1020kg 8.622×1020kg 1.724×1021kg
4.6437×109C 9.2875×109C 1.8575×1010C C(Coulombs) 3.7150×1010C 7.4300×1010C 1.4860×1011C
.0545744 K .1091488 K .2182976 K T(Kelvin) .4365953 K .8731907 K 1.74638 K
6.1897×1026 1.2379×1027 2.4758×1027 B2Vertices 4.9517×1027 9.9035×1027 1.9807×1028
1.5177×1082 1.2141×1083 9.71334×1083 ScalingV 7.7706×1084 6.2165×1085 4.9732×1086
Lightm/sec
Discussion:

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 91 to 96 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here

97 to 102
Now all the elements of human life have a container.
97 98 99 <-Steps->
100 101 102
8.543×10-15s 1.7086×10-14s 3.4172×10-14s T(seconds) 6.834×10-14s 1.366×10-13s 2.733×10-13s
2.56.microns 5.12.microns 10.24.microns L(meters) 20.487.microns 40.975.microns 81.95.microns
3.4488×1021kg 6.8976×1021kg 1.3795×1022kg M(kilograms) 2.7590×1021kg 5.5181×1021kg 1.1036×1022kg
2.9720×1011C 5.944×1011C 1.188×1012C C(Coulombs) 2.3776×1012C 4.755×1012C 9.5104×1012C
3.4927 K 6.985 K 13.971 K T(Kelvin) 27.942 K 55.884 K 111.768 K
3.9614×1028 7.9228×1028 1.5845×1029 B2Vertices 3.1691×1029 6.3382×1029 1.26765×1030
3.9785×1087 3.1828×1088 2.5462×1089 ScalingV 2.037×1090 1.629×1091 1.3037×1092
Lightm/sec
Discussion:

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 97 to 102 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here

103 to 108
The question should be asked, “What is a container?”
103 104 105 <-Steps->
106 107 108
5.4675×10-13.s 1.0935×10-12.s 2.187×10-12.s T(seconds) 4.37402×10-12.s 8.748×10-12.s 1.7496×10-11.s
.16.millimeters .3278.mm .6556 mm L(meters) 1.3112 mm 2.6224 mm 5.2448.mm
2.2072×1022kg 4.41448×1022kg 8.8289×1022kg M(kilograms) 1.7657×1023kg 3.5315×1023kg 7.0631×1023kg
1.90208×1013C 3.8041×1013C 7.6083×1013C C(Coulombs) 1.5216×1014C 3.0433×1014C 6.086×1014C
2.235×102 K 4.4707×102 K 8.9414×102 K T(Kelvin) 1.7882×103 K 3.5765×103 K 7.153×103 K
2.5353×1030 5.0706×1030 1.0141×1031 B2Vertices 2.0282×1031 4.0564×1031 8.1129×1031
1.0429×1093 8.3436×1093 6.6749×1094 ScalingV 5.339×1095 4.2719×1096 3.417×1097
Lightm/sec
Discussion: The Sun’s temperature is 5778 K. In this early edition, it is between notations 107 and 108.

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: When does a group of numbers become a cluster, container, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step?

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 103 to 108 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here

109 to 114
Now all the elements of human life have a container.
109 110 111 <-Steps->
112 113 114
3.4992×10-11.s 6.9984×10-11.s 1.3996×10-10.s T(seconds) 2.7993×10-10.s 5.5987×10-10.s 1.1197×10-9.s
1.048.centimeters 2.097.cm 4.1958 cm L(meters) 8.3917 cm 16.7835 cm 33.5671.centimeters
1.41263×1024kg 2.82527×1024kg 5.6505×1024kg M(kilograms) 1.1301×1025kg 2.2602×1025kg 4.5204×1025kg
1.2173×1015C 2.4346×1015C 4.8693×1015C C(Coulombs) 9.7386×1015C 1.9477×1016C 3.8954×1016C
1.4306×104 K 2.4346×104 K 5.7225×104 K T(Kelvin) 1.1445×105 K 2.2890×105 K 4.5780×105 K
1.6225×1032 3.24518×1032 6.4903×1032 B2Vertices 1.2980×1033 2.5961×1033 5.1922×1033
2.73406×1098 2.1872×1099 1.7498×10100 ScalingV 1.3998×10101 1.1198×10102 8.9589×10102
Discussion:

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step

<Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 109 to 114 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here

115 to 120
Now all the elements of human life have a container.
115 116 117 <-Steps->
118 119 120
2.2395×10-9.s 4.479×10-9.s 8.958×10-9.s T(seconds) 1.7916×10-8.s 3.5832×10-8.s 7.1664×10-8.s
67.1343.cm 1.3426.meters 2.6853 m L(meters) 5.3707 m 10.7414 m 21.4829.m
9.0408×1025kg 1.8081×1026kg 3.6163×1026kg M(kilograms) 7.2326×1026kg 1.4465×1027kg 2.8930×1027kg
7.7909×1016C 1.5581×1017C 3.1163×1017C C(Coulombs) 6.2327×1017C 1.2465×1018C 2.4930×1018C
9.1560×105 K 1.831×106 K 3.662×106 K T(Kelvin) 7.324×106 K 1.4649×107 K 2.929×107 K
1.03845×1034 2.0769×1034 4.1538×1034 B2Vertices 8.3076×1034 1.66153×1035 3.3230×1035
7.1671×10103 5.733×10104 4.5869×10105 ScalingV 3.6695×10106 2.9356×10107 2.3485×10108
Discussion:

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 115 to 120 the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here

121 to 126
Now all the elements of human life have a container.
121 122 123 <-Steps->
124 125 126
1.4332×10-7.s 2.8665×10-7.s 5.7331×10-7.s T(seconds) 1.1466×10-6.s 2.2932×10-6.s 4.5864×10-6.s
42.9659.m 85.9319.m 171.8638 m L(meters) 343.7277 m 687.4554 m 1.3749.kilometers
5.7861×1027kg 1.1572×1028kg 2.3144×1028kg M(kilograms) 4.6289×1028kg 9.2578×1028kg 1.8515×1029kg
4.9861×1018C 9.9723×1018C 1.9944×1019C C(Coulombs) 3.9889×1019C 7.9779×1019C 1.5955×1020C
5.8598×107 K 1.1719×108 K 2.3439×108 K T(Kelvin) 4.687×108 K 9.3758×108 K 1.8751×109 K
6.6461×1035 1.3292×1036 2.6584×1036 B2Vertices 5.3169×1036 1.063382×1037 2.1267×1037
1.8788×10109 1.5030×10110 1.2024×10111 ScalingV 9.6196×10111 7.6957×10112 6.1565×10113
Discussion:
Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step
Notes and references:
127 to 132
In less than 1/10000’s of a second, all elements within human life have an archetypal container.
127 128 129 <-Steps->
130 131 132
9.1729×10-6.s 1.8345×10-5.s 3.669×10-5.s T(seconds) 7.338×10-5.s 1.4676×10-4.s 2.9353×10-4.s
2.7498.km 5.499.km 10.9992 km L(meters) 21.9985 km 43.9971 km 87.9942.km
3.7031×1029kg 7.4062×1029kg 1.4812×1030kg M(kilograms) 2.9625×1030kg 5.925×1030kg 1.1850×1031kg
3.1911×1020C 6.3823×1020C 1.2764×1021C C(Coulombs) 2.5529×1021C 5.1058×1021C 1.0211×1022C
3.7503×109K 7.5006×109K 1.5001×1010K T(Kelvin) 3.0002×1010K 6.0005×1010K 1.2001×1011K
4.2535×1037 8.5070×1037 1.7014×1038 B2Vertices 3.4028×1038 6.8056×1038 1.3611×1039
4.9252×10114 3.9402×10115 3.1521×10116 ScalingV 2.5217×10117 2.0173×10118 1.6139×10119
Discussion:

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, set and/or step

Notes and references: Here is a link to the Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling. From notations 127 to 200+ the actual number of vertices are stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

133 to 138
Transitions between the Human Scale Universe and Large Scale Universe
133 134 135 <-Steps->
136 137 138
5.8707×10-4.s 1.1741×10-3.s 2.348×10-3.s T(seconds) 4.6965×10-3.s 9.3931×10-3.s 1.8786×10-2.s
175.9885.km 351.977.km 703.9543.km L(meters) 1407.9087.km 2815.8174.km 5631.6349.km
2.3700×1031kg 4.7400×1031kg 9.4800×1031kg M(kilograms) 1.8960×1032kg 3.7920×1032kg 7.5840×1032kg
2.0423×1022C 4.0846×1022C 8.1693×1022C C(Coulombs) 1.6338×1023C 3.2677×1023C 6.5354×1023C
2.4002×1011 K 4.8004×1011 K 9.6008×1011 K T(Kelvin) 1.9201×1012 K 3.8403×1012 K 7.6806×1011 K
2.7222×1039 5.4445×1039 1.088×1040 B2Vertices 2.1778×1040 4.3556×1040 8.7112×1040
1.29112×10120 1.0328×10121 8.2631×10121 ScalingV 6.6105×10122 5.2884×10123 4.2307×10124
Discussion: Eight key events happen within the large-scale universe.
One second: Between the 142nd and 143rd notations.
One day: At 86,400 seconds, it is between the 160th and 161st notations.
One week: At 604,8000 seconds, it is within the 163rd notation.
One month: An average of 2,629,746 seconds, it is within the 165th notation.
One year: An average of 31,556,952 seconds, it is between the 168th and 169th notations.
One millennium: 1000 years, an average of 31,556,952,000 seconds, it is between the 178th and 179th notations.
One million years: An average of 31,556,952,000,000 seconds, it is between the 178th and 179th notations.
One billion years, an eon: An average of 31,556,952,000,000,000 seconds, it is between the 198th and 200th notations.Key concept:Key questions: Numbers.Key words, primary concepts, and links to references for these ten notations:Open: Design thoughts:Link to Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling: From notations 139 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.
139 to 144
The first second of creation completes between notations 142 and 143.
139 140 141 <-Steps->
142 143 144
3.7572×10-2.s 7.5145×10-2.s .15029×10.s T(seconds) .30058.s .60116.s 1.2023.s
11,263.2699.km 22,526.5398.km 45,053.079.km L(meters) 90,106.158.km 180,212.316.km 360,424.632.km
1.5168×1033kg 3.0336×1033kg 6.0672×1033kg M(kilograms) 1.2134×1034kg 2.4268×1034kg 4.8537×1034kg
1.3070×1024C 2.6141×1024C 5.2283×1024C C(Coulombs) 1.0456×1025C 2.0913×1025C 4.1827×1025C
1.5361×1013 K 3.0722×1013 K 6.1445×1013 K T(Kelvin) 1.2289×1014 K 2.4578×1014 K 4.9156×1014 K
1.74224×1041 3.4844×1041 6.96898×1041 B2Vertices 1.3937×1042 2.78759×1042 5.57518×1042
3.3846×10125 2.7076×10126 2.1661×10127 ScalingV 1.73291×10128 1.38634×10129 1.109×10130
Discussion: All these notations are still being double checked and cross referenced to the other three key charts. We will correct simple math errors as quickly as possible.

One minute and one hour of creation should be noted. The figures at one day (Notation 160), one week, one month, one year, one millennium and one eon (1 billion years) are all important clues to interpret the meaning of each notation.

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: Is there a formula that begins to bind all notations deeper than exponentiation? Can the speed of light do it?

Formula #1

We start with a most simple formula. Divide each value along the Planck Length scale by its corresponding value along the Planck Time, the result should equal the speed of light (kilometers per second) at every one of the 201 notations.

Let’s see if the logic bears out. First, we will use the closest possible Planck Time and Planck Length multiples to one second, .6011 seconds and 1.202 seconds at notations 143 and 144 respectively.

The first simple calculation: The simple formula is to divided 180,212.316 kilometers by 6.011 seconds. That calculation gives us a figure of 299,804.05257 km/second.

Dividing 360424.632 kilometers by 1.202 seconds gives us a figure of 299,854.103161 km/second. The experimentally defined measurement for one light second is 299,792.458 km/second.

When using a more refined measurement, the results naturally change. Using a calculation based on the ratio of 1.20232257536 seconds to 360424.632 kilometers renders a figure of 299,773.654248 km/second. We’ll have to be careful to test with an equal number of decimal units for time and length.

Every notation has its own calculation for the speed of light. We will do the calculations for several notations to see if it tells us something of interest.

At 142nd notation, .300580643 divided by 90,106.158 equals 299,773,655.085 meters per second and at notation 143, 299,773,654.587 m/s and at notation 145, 299,773,673.037 m/sec and at notation 146, the ratio 4.80929 seconds to 1,441,698.55 km equals 299,773,677.611 m/s. Light is a ratio, a tension that defines both space and time.

How about 150 and 100?

At 100th notation, the length is 20.4877678 microns divided by 6.83441261472×10-14 seconds equals 299,773,644.861 m/s. At 150th notation, 23,067,176.8 km divided by 76.948644823 seconds equals 299,773,658.822 m/s. Mass, temperature, and charge contribute to that definition.

Analysis: Of course, it is not at all surprising that the Planck Time, Planck Length, and the speed of light correlate throughout the chart given that both Planck Time and Planck Length are determined by the speed of light.

What is surprising is that this simple formula begins to corroborate the basic integrity of the chart, base-2 exponentiation with the speed of light, and it all begs for further much deeper analysis.

We will do it. We will go back through all 204 notations and do the calculations using numbers extended to the ten places, then 100 places, and even 1000 decimal places. First, we’ll begin getting a sense of patterns or the lack of patterns. Perhaps all these numbers are non-duplicating and never-ending. Perhaps these numbers, like Pi, the pentagonal gap, and the dimensionless constants, define degrees of freedom that further compute as quantum indeterminacy and uncertainty and perhaps even free will. Speculative? Of course. Crazy? Maybe. Worth the time for further analysis? Of course, it is. We’ll report the results within each notation.

Let us now find Formula #2.

Link to Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling: From notations 139 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here. These vertices open the discussions about the inherent geometry that should permeate this chart.

145 to 150
The first minute, just 60 seconds, and look how far the universe has come!
145 146 147 <-Steps->
148 149 150
2.4046.seconds 4.8092.s 9.6185.s T(seconds) 19.237.s 38.47432.s 76.9486.s
720,849.264.km 1,441,698.528.km 2,883,397.056.km L(meters) 5,766,794.112.km 11,533,588.224.km 23,067,176.488.km
9.7075×1034kg 1.9415×1035kg 3.883×1035kg M(kilograms) 7.7660×1035kg 1.5532×1036kg 3.1064×1036kg
8.3654×1025C 1.673×1026C 3.3461×1026C C(Coulombs) 6.6923×1026C 1.3384×1027C 2.6769×1027C
9.831×1014 K 1.966×1015 K 3.932×1015 K T(Kelvin) 7.865×1015 K 1.573×1016 K 3.146×1016 K
1.1150×1043 2.2300×1043 4.4601×1043 B2Vertices 8.9202×1043 1.7840×1044 3.568×1044
8.8725×10130 7.0980×10131 5.6784×10132 ScalingV 4.5427×10133 3.6341×10134 2.9073×10135
Discussion:

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: These notations can be looked at from several perspectives. You may find a duplicate page of these numbers where the word, Steps” has been changed to reflect that view of the data. Each step could be a cluster, domain, doubling, group, layer, notation, and/or set.

Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling: From notations 139 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

151 to 156
How does this first hour of creation compare with the Big Bang?
151 152 153 <-Steps->
154 155 156
153.8972.seconds 307.794.s 615.589.s T(seconds) 1231.178.s 2462.3566.s 4924.713.s
46,134,352.896+.km 92,268,705.792+.km 184,537,411.584.km L(meters) 369,074,823.168.km 738,149,646.336.168.km 1.4762×1012.km
6.21283×1036kg 1.2425×1037kg 2.4851×1037kg M(kilograms) 4.9702×1037kg 9.9405×1037kg 1.9881×1038kg
5.3538×1027C 1.0707×1028C 2.1415×1028C C(Coulombs) 4.2831×1028C 8.5662×1028C 1.7132×1029C
6.292×1016 K 1.258×1017 K 2.5168×1017 K T(Kelvin) 5.0336×1017 K 1.0067×1018 K 2.013×1018 K
7.136×1044 1.427×1045 2.8544×1045 B2Vertices 5.708×1045 1.141×1046 2.283×1046
2.325×10136 1.860×10137 1.4885×10138 ScalingV 1.1908×10139 9.5268×10139 7.6214×10140
Discussion: 3600 seconds, between notations 155 and 156, account for the first hour of creation. In this model it appears that the infrastructure to create the universe to this point is the same infrastructure that sustains the universe. It appears that in this model “the first hour container” which is notation 155, is still at work today.

Note that 3600 seconds equals an hour, multiplied by the speed of light is 1,079,252,848.800 kilometers. At notation 155, 738,149,657 kilometers divided by 2462.35663434 seconds equals 299,773.658578 km/second. The experimentally defined speed of light is 299,792.458 km/second.

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics: More analysis to come on the differences between experimental data and purely mathematical data.

Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling: From notations 139 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

157 to 162
THE FIRST DAY (and the infrastructure for every subsequent day)
157 158 159 <-Steps->
160 161 162
9849.426.s 19,698.853.s 39,397.706.s T(seconds) 78,795.4122.s 157,590.82.s 315,181.649.s
2,952,598,585.km 5,905,197,170.km 11,810,394,341+.km L(meters) 23,620,788,682+.km 47,241,577,365+.km 94,483,154,731.km
3.9762×1038kg 7.9524×1038kg 1.5904×1039kg M(kilograms) 3.1809×1039kg 6.3619×1039kg 1.2723×1040kg
3.4264×1029C 6.8529×1029C 1.3705×1030C C(Coulombs) 2.741×1030C 5.482×1030C 1.096×1031C
4.026×1018 K 8.053×1018 K 1.610×1019 K T(Kelvin) 3.221×1019 K 6.443×1019 K 1.288×1018 K
4.567×1046 9.134×1046 1.826×1047 B2Vertices 3.653×1047 7.307×1047 1.461×1048
6.097×10141 4.877×10142 3.902×10143 ScalingV 3.1217×10144 2.497×10145 1.997×10146
Discussion: The First Day concludes at 86400 seconds. The universe appears to be approaching the size of our Solar System. At notation 160, it is 23,620,788,682 kilometers or 1,467,727,765 miles. If measured in astronomical units (AU), the Solar System is estimated to be the distance of 122 AU which is 122 times 93 million miles or 11.346 trillion miles.

The orbiting Kuiper Belt (which contains Pluto) is 7.5 billion kilometers (30- 50 AU). So, within the first day, the universe has grown substantially larger than the Kuiper Belt.

Also, note that one day is 86,400 seconds. Multiplied by the speed of light, 299,792.458 km, equals a length of 25,902,068,371.2 km.

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics:

Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling: From notations 139 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

163 to 168
The first month is within notation 165. The first year begins on the edge of 168 as it become 169.
163 164 165 <-Steps->
166 167 168
630,363.29.s 1,260,726.59.s 2,521,453.19.s T(seconds) 5,042,906.38.s 10,085,812.77.s 20,171,625.54.s
1.88966306×1014.km 3.779×1014.km 7.558×1014.km L(meters) 1.511×1015.km 3.023×1015.km 6.046×1015.km
2.544×1040kg 5.089×1040kg 1.0179×1041kg M(kilograms) 2.035×1041kg 4.071×1041kg 8.143×1042kg
2.192×1031C 4.385×1031C 8.771×1031C C(Coulombs) 1.754×1032C 3.508×1032C 7.017×1032C
2.5772×1020 K 5.1544×1020 K 1.030×1021 K T(Kelvin) 2.061×1021 K 4.123×1021 K 8.247×1021 K
2.923×1048 5.846×1048 1.169×1049 B2Vertices 2.338×1049 4.6768×1049 9.353×1049
1.598×10147 1.278×10148 1.022×10149 ScalingV 8.1834×10149 2.497×10150 6.5467×10151
Discussion: The First Month: Use 30.436875 days per month based on a year of 365.2425 days divided by 12 months; Given there are 86,400 seconds per day, there is an average of 2,629,746 seconds per month. It is within notation 165. Multiplied by 299,792,458 m/s equals a length of 777,062,051,136,000 meters or 777,062,051,136 km, a little larger than the Planck Length and Time at 165th notation (755,865,224,00 and 29.18 days respectively).

Speed of Light. A simple calculation from notation 168 where the length is 6046921800000 kilometers and the time is 20,171,625.5485 seconds, the speed of light is 299,773.649152 kilometers/second.

1000 years. There are 31,556,952,000 seconds to a millennium which is found between notations 177 and 178.

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics:

Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling: From notations 139 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

169 to 174
The First Year and the definition of “Yearness” is within notation 169.
169 170 171 <-Steps->
172 173 174
40,343,251.097.s 80,686,502.194.s 161,373,004.388.s T(seconds) 322,746,008.7.s 645,492,017.5.s 1,290,984,035.s
1.2093×1016.km 2.4187×1016.km 4.8375×1016.km L(meters) 9.675×1016.km 1.935×1017.km 3.87×1017.km
1.628×1042kg 3.257×1042kg 6.514×1042kg M(kilograms) 1.302×1043kg 2.605×1043kg 5.211×1043kg
1.403×1033C 2.80×1033C 5.613×1033C C(Coulombs) 1.122×1034C 2.245×1034C 4.491×1034C
1.649×1022 K 3.298×1022 K 6.597×1022 K T(Kelvin) 1.319×1023 K 2.63×1023 K 5.278×1023 K
1.8707×1050 3.7414×1050 7.4828×1050 B2Vertices 1.4965×1051 2.993×1051 5.986×1051
4.1899×10152 3.3519×10153 2.6815×10154 ScalingV 2.145×10155 1.716×10156 1.372×10157
Discussion: The First Year: Using a year of 365.2425 days and 86,400 seconds per day, there are 31,556,952 seconds per year. A year, when multiplied by the speed of light, 299,792,458 m/s equals a length of 9,460,536,207,068,016 meters or 9,460,536,207,068.016 km, between the 168th and the 169th notations.

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics:

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 169 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

175 to 180
1000 Years, a millennium, is between notation 178 and 179.
175 176 177 <-Steps->
178 179 180
2,581,968,070.s 5,163,936,140.s 10,327,872,280.8.s T(seconds) 20,655,744,561.s 41,311,489,123.s 82,622,978,246.s
7.7400×1017.km 1.548×1018.km 3.096×1018.km L(meters) 6.192×1018.km 1.238×1019.km 2.476×1019.km
1.042×1044kg 2.084×1044kg 4.169×1044kg M(kilograms) 8.338×1044kg 1.667×1045kg 3.335×1045kg
8.982×1034C 1.796×1035C 3.592×1035C C(Coulombs) 7.185×1035C 1.437×1036C 2.874×1036C
1.055×1024 K 2.111×1024 K 4.222×1024 K T(Kelvin) 8.444×1024 K 1.688×1025 K 3.377×1025 K
1.1972×1052 2.3945×1052 4.789×1052 B2Vertices 9.578×1052 1.915×1053 3.831×1053
8.786×10158 7.029×10159 5.623×10160 ScalingV 4.498×10161 3.599×10162 2.879×10163
Discussion: The First 1000 Years: There are 31,556,952 seconds in a year and 31,556,952,000 seconds in a millennium which is between notations 178 and 179.

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics:

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 169 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

181 to 186
Expanding toward 1,000,000 Years, then an Eon (one billion years).
181 182 183 <-Steps->
184 185 186
165,245,956,493.s 330,491,912,986.s 660,983,825,972.s T(seconds) 1,321,967,651,940.s 2,643,935,303,880.s 5,287,870,607,760.s
4.953×1019.km 9.907×1019.km 1.98×1020.km L(meters) 3.96×1020.km 7.925×1020.km 1.585×1021.km
6.67×1045kg 1.334×1046kg 2.668×1046kg M(kilograms) 5.336×1046kg 1.067×1047kg 2.134×1047kg
5.748×1036C 1.149×1037C 2.299×1037C C(Coulombs) 4.598×1037C 9.197×1037C 1.839×1038C
6.755×1025 K 1.351×1026 K 2.702×1026 K T(Kelvin) 5.404×1026 K 1.080×1027 K 2.161×1027 K
7.6624×1053 1.5324×1054 3.0649×1054 B2Vertices 6.1299×1054 1.2259×1055 2.4519×1055
1.842×10164 1.4742×10165 1.1793×10166 ScalingV 9.4349×10166 7.547×10167 6.0383×10168
Discussion: The First Million Years: There are 31,556,952 seconds in a year, 31,556,952,000 seconds in a millennium and 31,556,926,000,000 seconds in a million years (Notations 187-188).

Speed of Light. A simple calculation from notation 184 where the length is 3.96291068×1020 meters and the time is 1,321,967,651,940 seconds, the speed of light is 299,773,649.846 kilometers/second.

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics:

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 169 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

187 to 192
1,000,000 Years (Notations 188 and 189) and toward an Eon (one billion years).
187 188 189 <-Steps->
190 191 192
10,575,741,215,500.s 21,151,482,431,000.s 42,302,964,862,000.s T(seconds) 84,605,929,724,000.s 169,211,859,448,000.s 338,423,718,896,000.s
3.170×1021.km 6.340×1021.km 1.268×1022.km L(meters) 2.536×1022.km 5.072×1022.km 1.014×1023.km
4.269×1047kg 8.538×1047kg 1.707×1048kg M(kilograms) 3.415×1048kg 6.831×1048kg 1.366×1049kg
3.679×1038C 7.358×1038C 1.471×1039C C(Coulombs) 2.943×1039C 5.886×1039C 1.177×1040C
4.323×1027 K 8.647×1027 K 1.729×1028 K T(Kelvin) 3.459×1028 K 6.918×1028 K 1.383×1029 K
4.9039×1055 9.8074×1055 1.9615×1056 B2Vertices 3.923×1056 7.846×1056 1.569×1057
4.8306×10170 3.864×10171 3.091×10172 ScalingV 2.473×10173 1.978×10174 1.582×10175
Discussion: The First Million Years: There are 31,556,952 seconds in a year, 31,556,952,000 seconds in a millennium and 31,556,926,000,000 seconds in a million years (Notations 188-189).

Key questions about order, relations and dynamics:

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 169 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

193 to 198
Approaching the billion year container between notation 199 and 200.
193 194 195 <-Steps->
196 197 198
676,847,437,792,000.s 1,353,694,875,580,000.s 2,707,389,751,160,000.s T(seconds) 5,414,779,502,320,000.s 10,829,559,004,600,000.s 21,659,118,009,200,000.s
2.029×1023.km 4.058×1023.km 8.116×1023.km L(meters) 1.623×1024.km 3.246×1022.km 6.492×1023.km
2.732×1049kg 5.464×1049kg 1.092×1050kg M(kilograms) 2.185×1050kg 4.371×1050kg 8.743×1050kg
2.354×1040C 4.709×1040C 9.418×1040C C(Coulombs) 1.883×1041C 3.767×1041C 7.534×1041C
2.767×1029 K 5.534×1029 K 1.106×1030 K T(Kelvin) 2.213×1030 K 4.427×1030 K 8.885×1030 K
3.138×1057 6.277×1057 1.255×1058 B2Vertices 2.5108×1058 5.021×1058 1.004×1059
1.266×10176 1.013×10177 8.104×10177 ScalingV 6.483×10178 5.188×10179 4.149×10180
Discussion: The Fullness of Time: On the approach to the first billion years of the universe, it is within these six notations that the universe as we experience it begins. There are 31,556,926,000,000,000 seconds in an eon that is a billion years, between notations 199 and 200.

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 169 to 200+ the actual number of vertices will be stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.

Notations 199 to 204 of 200+
Our little universe is still expanding.
199 200 201 <-Steps->
202 203 204
4.331×1016.s.* 8.663×1016.s.* 1.732×1017.s.* T(seconds) 3.4654×1017.s.* Age of the Universe
1.298×1024.km 2.597×1024.km 5.194×1024.km L(meters) 1.038×1025.km 2.077×1025.km 4.155×1025.km
1.748×1049kg 3.497×1049kg 6.995×1050kg M(kilograms) 1.399×1050kg 2.798×1050kg 5.596×1050kg
1.506×1042C 3.013×1042C 6.027×1042C C(Coulombs) 1.205×1043C 2.411×1043C 4.822×1043C
1.77×1031 K 3.542×1031 K 7.084×1031 K T(Kelvin) 1.416×1032 K PLANCK TEMPERATURE
2.008×1059 4.017×1059 8.034×1059 B2Vertices 1.606×1060 3.213×1060 6.427×1060
3.319×10181 2.655×10182 2.124×10183 ScalingV 1.699×10184 1.087×10185 8.702×10185
1 Notation 199: 43,318,236,018,400,000 seconds (2.7 billion years)
2 Notation 200: 86,636,472,036,800,000 seconds (5.4 billion years)
3 Notation 201: 173,272,944,073,600,000 seconds (10.8 billions years)
4 Notation 202: 346,545,888,147,200,000 seconds (21.6 billion years)Discussion:The Fullness of Time. The first billion years of the universe becomes two billion years within the next notation, four at the next, and eight at the next. If time is imputed to be discrete and quantized, the aggregate of all notations must be added to determine the actual first eon. There are 31,556,926,000,000,000 seconds in an EON. That would seem to be between notations 198 and 199. But, if time is discrete, it would be the sum of every prior notation so it would come within the notations 197 to 198. That same logic would apply to the Age of the Universe in seconds. Notation 201 is 173,272,944,073,600,000 seconds or 10.8 billion years. The sum total of all notations from the Planck Time to the 201 notation is one Planck Time unit less than 173,272,944,073,600,000 seconds. We should round up! So, the universe today is within the earliest part of notation 201 using 13.8± billion years for the Age of the Universe.How many seconds old is the universe? Somewhere around 435.48 quintillion seconds. Each day adds another 86,400 seconds. Each year adds approximately 31.55 million seconds.Basic math: There are 31.5 quintillion seconds in a billion years multiplied by 13.8 gives us 435.48 quintillion seconds.Now, that’s an interesting piece of information: The universe is 435.48 quintillion seconds old! Of course, we could be mistaken. There is such a thing as Poincare recurrence. Somehow a second is not a second within certain symmetry groups. That may well be true, but if we impute time’s first function to be a measurement of light within a particular domain, that symmetry is established within the domain alone. Perhaps it could be said that it is a speed at which things communicate within a domain. Also, given the domain (or notation, doubling, container, group, set, cluster) apparently has no less five fundamental determinants, each creates a perspectival view of that notation.Speed of Light. A simple calculation from notation 199 where the length is 1.29856658×1025 meters and the time is 43,318,236,018,400,000 seconds, the speed of light is approximately 299,773,651.782 kilometers/second.Within notation 201, the length is 5.19426632×1025 meters and the time is 173,272,944,073,600,000, the speed of light is also approximately 299,773,651.782 kilometers/second. At notation 202, that figure is 299,773,650.628 kilometers/second. Let us remember that the “official” measurement of 299,792,458 m/s is in a vacuum and does not consider inertial frames.Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: For the large scale, notations 132 to 201+ the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.
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The Planck Epoch

Most recent update: August 2016
WORK-IN-PROGRESS -NOT YET A FIRST DRAFT.
by Bruce Camber, New Orleans

The Working HypothesisThe Planck base units also known as the  gravitational or space-time singularity  is the dynamic transformational nexus between the finite and infinite where there is a complete unification of all the forces of nature, i.e. the Planck base units (aka Planck scale). We postulate that this unification is extended through dynamic working ratios throughout all 200+ notations from the first moment of creation to the current time and present day. We further postulate that this working premise creates an environment to build a panoply of bridges from the Planck scale to all current physical theories whereby each notation is a domain for unique predictive values.  To test this hypothesis and these postulations, base-2 notation is applied and the unique numbers of each Planck base unit are charted to include every space — everything everywhere — and every time from the first moment of creation to this moment this day. There are over 1000 numbers and hundreds of thousands of ratios  to analyze.

We call this model the Quiet Expansion (QE) and quiet expansion cosmology.

Wikipedia, representing today’s big bang cosmology, says that the Planck epoch  requires speculative proposals, a “New Physics” such as “…the Hartle–Hawking initial state, string landscape, string gas cosmology, and the ekpyrotic universe.” Each is a conceptually-rich, dense jungle of ideas. Cutting through that entanglement is only for the highly-motivated and academically astute. Most of us will just go on to the grand unification epoch, in search of a logical system that builds consistently upon itself.

More than just the bbt‘s four forces of nature within the Planck scale, we assume these four are encapsulated within all five Planck base units defined by length, time, mass, temperature and charge; and, these are further defined by the speed of light (or special relativity), the gravitational constant (or general relativity), the reduced Planck constant (or ħ or quantum mechanics), the Coulomb constant (or ε0 or electric charge or electromagnetism), and the Boltzmann constant (or kB or of temperature).

All are bound within this Planck scale; and, herein it is proposed to be the foundations for a highly-ordered, totally-relational universe.

0-67-84-110
What is time? What is space? What is finite? What is infinite? Was Sir Isaac Newton or Gottfried Leibniz correct about it all?

The key to our model is multiplication by 2, starting with the Planck base units. A nexus of transformation between the finite and the infinite is defined by the crossing lines at “0” within the image on the right.

Most all of the work done since 1975 to promulgate the big bang theory (bbt) can be quickly absorbed within the QE. Our primary questions are about the first four and most fundamental periods which are call “Epochs” within the bbt. Taken together, these four epochs represent less than a fraction-of-a-fraction of a second within the QE model. With just little tweaks, we believe most all their work within the subsequent epochs can be readily integrated.

Although technically the Planck Epoch should be just the first notation (#1) we will initially be asking, “Could it be more than just the “0” notations? Why ? Why not?  The Grand Unification Epoch will range from Notations 1 to 60 and possibly as high as 67.

Planck Epoch renamed Planck Moment: The finite-infinite relation most intimately defines the first notation and is necessarily within all notations building from the first. An infinitesimal duration, it is the beginning that creates space and time and then extends within space and time much like the birthing process. As of today, the Planck base units are our simplest-deepest-best description of this moment.

Within the bbt the Planck epoch is still mysterious. It is a weak initial condition and foundation for a theory.  Plus, many say that it is bad psychology for that very reason. It is so disjointed, so out of touch with anything human, it <em>de facto</em> promotes a certain form of nihilism.

Electroweak

Most recent update: August 2016
Approaching a first draft. Data collection and analysis is ongoing.*

Introduction: The Big Bang Electroweak Epoch-and-Processes in Light of the Quiet Expansion

Let’s map the universe using base-2 notation.

 

Within cosmology the concept of an Electroweak Epoch implies a beginning and endpoint. Although it follows the Planck Epoch, the Grand Unification Epoch, and the Inflationary Epoch, it is the first “epoch” of the big bang theory (bbt) with concepts that can be researched and tested; it is not solely extracted from informed speculations. Because the actual dynamics of electroweak processes can be replicated within CERN laboratory in Geneva, any new results of current research becomes a major global event. That data is shared as quickly as possible with literally hundreds-of-thousands of our finest thinkers around the world who begin to analyze the data, ponder the implications, and attempt to incorporate that data within their own research.

But, what if our understanding of the first three epochs is wrong? What if there wasn’t a big bang but a quiet expansion of the Planck base units to the first instants of physicality?

This rather idiosyncratic, naive idea is based on the simple math and simple logic of the Big Board-little universe (BB-lu) project and the Quiet Expansion (QE). Those of us who are exploring the BB-lu and QE would be the first to say, “It’s so simple, it’s simplistic.”

But, maybe not.

It seems that the electroweak processes can be even more pointedly studied and tested when examined within the numbers of the BB-lu and QE base-2 chart. The entire chart just might inform the coincidence problem — the nature of the vacuum, and the distribution of matter (including baryon and neutrino) and radiation energy densities throughout our Universe. That is, it just might inform dark energy and dark matter.

Although the bbt concept of an epoch is quite fluid, it still begs the question, “Is there any logic that can be applied to determine if and when there is an endpoint of those processes that could constitute an epoch?” At this stage in our studies, it seems that electroweak processes will be seen and understood as a continuing process rather than an epoch.

The big bang theorists have given two different starting point ranges. The first, based on time, is between 10−12 second (Notations 104-107) and 10−6 second (Notations 124 to 127). Their range is Notations 104 to 127. Some of these same people say it will require an estimated temperature of 2×1012 Kelvin to create the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Others have it as high as 1015 K. Using these estimates, this process could begin as early as notations 136 and 137. Note the temperature has quickly turned from superconducting cold at ‑135°C or -211° F (138 K) just above notation 102 to about 3,456,179,999,540.33° F (1.9201×1012 K) at notation 136.

If 1015 K, it would be between the 145 and 146 notations. The universe is less than ten seconds old, the mass of the universe is 3.883×1035 kilograms and it is substantially charged at 3.3461×1026 Coulombs and it is all happening within an area defined by 1,791,660 miles. As a a point of comparison, the earth ranges from 91 to 93 million miles from the Sun. The moon is from 224,000 to 251,000 miles from the earth.

The big bang theorists postulate that it requires 175 MeV per particle (mega-electron-volt). Given all the data being generated within this model, there may be a way to figure it out. It is beyond us so we ask the experts, “How do we figure that out!?!” Note that within notations 136 and 137 the universe is less than one-hundredth of second from its start and at notation 145, it is 2.4 seconds.

The temperature scale within this model is an open question. The charge, length, mass and time were taken as given by Max Planck and render results that can be conceptually adjusted, even corrected, if there are logic errors.

For the big bang theory the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is the transition and transformational key and the first “stuff” of the universe. No earlier than Notation 104, and possibly as late as Notation 137, are the first manifestations of matter.

In the Quiet Expansion, the pure mathematics and geometries of Notations 1 to 66 become our first manifestations of matter within Notation 67. So, in our studies we will be looking for come kind of recalibration process by which the QGP becomes part of notation 67, perhaps 66, and all notations adjust.

Within the Quiet Expansion model, spheres-geometries-ratios are the very first manifestations within the small scale universe (Notations 1-67). If we are to incorporate the speculations of the bbt, there is a magical transition between 67 and the quark-gluon plasma’s emergence. What is it? How is it best described? What is the finite-infinite relation?

We’ll be searching around within this cosmic soup, looking ahead at the Quark, Hadron, Lepton and Photon Epochs. Between the Photon and Hydrogen comes the cosmic Dark Ages, reionization comes much later. Then, what about aneutronic fusion? …the four or five forces of nature?  …about the geometries of flavors, Up-Down, Top-Bottom, Strange-Charm? Might there be Brownian stochastic flavors?

Regarding the flavor problem, JoAnne Hewett, a theoretical physicist at the Stanford Linear Accelerator in Menlo Park, asks, “Why are there so many flavors? Why do we have six types of quarks and six types of leptons, and why do they have the different masses that they do? We don’t have a clue.”

Let’s figure it out.

First, we defer to the posting about numbers and to the four processes that are being defined in the Exponentiation, Expansion, and Inflation post. Intentionally, the words associated with the particle flavors are used to describe the four basic processes of multiplication and division. Also, let it be noted that there is something exquisitely important about spontaneous symmetry breaking.

Now, it appears that we have the pieces of the puzzle but perhaps not a proper orientation to them.

A look at the progression of ideation.

Perhaps to understand the electroweak theory and its epoch will require going all the way back to 1687 when Sir Isaac Newton first postulated his theory that space and time are absolute. One can imagine that he could feel how both were infinite and unalterable and how both envelope all things everywhere within a perfect homogeneity. Obviously when it came to physical objects, he had a deep sense of empathy. His key concept is that space and time are independent aspects of objective reality. This point of view became commonsense logic for most of the world’s population. But, is it so? None of us should ever be satisfied with just one point of view. A fellow by the name of Gottfried Leibniz, a contemporary of Newton (and also an inventor of calculus), gives a very different point of view. Increasingly throughout the world today, there are many scientists and mathematicians who for many different reasons concur with the conclusions of Leibniz. Their work will become part of the final analysis of this posting.

If space and time are not absolute, but quantized, discrete and/or derivative, we have the beginnings of a fundamentally different perception of space and time. To see how that plays out, fast forward to 1967 at MIT where another natural philosopher and scientist, Stephen Weinberg, postulated his theory that there is a fundamental relation between electromagnetism and the nuclear weak forces, both beta-decay and kaon-decay. So compelled by his vision, Weinberg, just 34 years old at the time, wrote a landmark paper, A Model of Leptons (PDF). Phys. Rev. Lett. 19 (21): 1264–1266. It would be the first time in history that fundamental forces had been mathematically related and it would become one of the most-cited papers in all of high energy and particle physics.

A truly small-scale universe. Neither Newton nor Weinberg had any sense that there was a domain between the exquisitely small Planck base units and the fermion. In fairness to both, the Planck base units were not postulated until 1899 and it required the rich conceptual developments in mathematics and physics between 1687 and 1899 before Max Planck could begin to envision natural limits that define our universe. And, in a special deference to Weinberg, it wasn’t until 2001 that Frank Wilczek opened the door to begin to study Max Planck’s mysterious numbers. Most folks who knew a little about Planck’s base units considered them to be nothing more than Dirac-like numerology.

Then, it wasn’t until 2011 that the first base-2 path was cut through to the Planck Length. It would be December 2014 before another path was cut, this time to Planck Time. And then, in just a few months (February 2015), paths were cut for charge, mass and temperature. In April 2016 a horizontally-scrolled chart of the top-level numbers began to emerge so each could be more systemically analyzed. The charts are all known as the Big Board-little universe. As a cosmology, it is contrasted to the big bang; it gives order to the universe by using base-2 exponential notation from the Planck Time to the Age of the Universe; and, it is known as the Quiet Expansion.

The numbers are all a simple progression. Multiplication by 2 is nature’s ordering system. It is simple logic that creates an ordered relation for everything, everywhere, for all time throughout the universe. Our challenge is to tie the resulting numbers to actual realities. One of our first observations was that length and time seemed to track well together. In between the 143rd and 144th notation was one second and its time measurement was very close to the speed of light in a vacuum.

Obviously, the most simple observation is that the current time is always at the top of the chart. The beginning of creation is always at the bottom of the chart. It would seem anything prior to the current time is historical — it is the past. But, all of the notations above 67 appear to define things as we find them today.

Key questions could be asked: Why is time linear and asymmetric? Could it be be nonlinear and symmetric? Is it possible that nothing is past? If so, then might it be possible that everything and every notation is always present and what appears to be an historical record (the past) is actually an active imprint on the universe?

That is a possibility that appears to be worth some time to consider.

 

* Note: We welcome your questions and comments.

Exponentiation, Expansion, Inflation, and Acceleration

Tetra200Most recent updates: Throughout August 2016.
WORK-IN PROGRESS  (Not a first draft)
The enclosed chart will definitely go from 112th notation (about 3.3″ inches in length) down to the 67th notation (2.38509018×10-15 meters), the place of particle physics.

Introduction. There are four processes within the progression of possible geometries within the our chart of the base-2 numbers from the Planck scale to the Age of the Universe. There are many more processes that we can imagine, however, these are the most simple. Once we have analyzed these four progressions of geometries, we will attempt to define how these geometries interact to create more complexity. With this posting, we open more questions than we answer. Many more calculations need to be done, listed, and analyzed. Two of earliest progressions have also been introduced within the large horizontally-scrolled chart on lines 8 and 9; one is called Base-2 Vertices and other, Scaling Vertices.

With this posting the concern is to define the whole/parts relations.

The first process/progression. Up arrow, also a caret (^), hat and/or tentOur initial sample starts with a 3.3-inch tetrahedron; we divide the edges in half and connect the new vertices.  The result is a new number of necessarily related tetrahedrons (4) and an octahedron. This combination is sometimes called an octet. Typically by using division, it is assumed at each step, things are getting smaller and smaller.  In the very first exercise in December 2011, that was the process. But, we were not concerned about the resulting numbers of objects,  we were just following one of the smaller objects until we were at about the size of the Planck Length. At notation 67 (on our way, going further inside, to notation 1), the question would eventually be asked, “What is getting smaller now? Do the number of objects continue to increase or in some special way does everything begin to share the same structures and do the numbers actually begin to decrease?”  We didn’t know then and we do not know today, however, thoughts about homogeneity and isotropy began crossing through our minds and continue to do so.

Here the total number of objects is being considered for the first time from a common size of about two inches increasingly smaller, down to to the 67th notation.  Perhaps when we get to that point, somebody will have some advice for us. Do the number of objects continue to increase or is there a consolidation or is it both?

The second process. The V, also symbol for Von Neumann universe, a class of hereditary well-founded sets. This collection is formalized by Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory (ZFC).

The numbers are related to just the objects as they are. Multiplied by 2, the number of same-sized objects would be getting larger, all expanding in an identical fashion. Analogues with cellular division will be studied closely. This progression of numbers has been taken out to the 20th notation here: https://bblu.org/2016/01/08/number/#4  It was taken out to the 201 notation as a simple count of vertices here:  https://bbludata.wordpress.com/vertices

Now the counting would begin as close to the Planck scale as possible, possibly notation 2 with its eight scaling vertices or notation 3 with its 64 scaling vertices or perhaps even later. That logic is being examined.

It all needs to be understood in light of the first, third and fourth processes for all 201 notations.

The third process. The line, bottom-to-top and top-to-bottom.  Here is the most direct path between 1 and 201.  The numbers are related to the edges being multiplied by 2.  It could be either a single dimensional line, or a two-dimensional plate, and have shared edges with the three-dimensional processes as iterated  above and below.  Here we are describing the two-dimensional plates that tile and tessellate the universe.

The fourth process: Up/down, V and ^ from any point, any notation.  Possibly the first up/down process began at the 67th notation.

All four processes can in some manner be applied to each notation, to each group of 67 notations, and to all 200+ notations.

Calculations of the Numbers of Tetrahedrons & Octahedrons

This is a discovery process; we are learning as we go along this path. Your suggestions are most welcomed.

0 Tetrahedron(s) Octahedron(s)
1 a= 4
b=1
Note: There are 4 tetrahedrons (a) and one octahedron (b) within every tetrahedron.
2 16 + 8 = 24 c+d=#2a where (4)(a)=c and (8)(b)=d (4 + 6) = 10
Note: There are 6 octahedrons and 8 tetrahedrons within every octahedron. Each column provides the running total of each object going smaller. It is a notation-by-notation  count of identical objects.
In each step, there are always numbers from each column to be added together (within the parenthesis) to get a total.  The first number in each parentheses is tetrahedral-related and the ratio is always 4 tetrahedrons to one octahedron. The second number in each parentheses is octahedral-related and the ratio is always 8 tetrahedrons to 6 octahedrons.
3 (96+ 8o) = 176 (24+ 60) = 84
4 (704 + 672) = 1376 (176 + 504) = 680
5 (5504 + 5440) = 10944 (1376 + 4044) = 5420
6 (43776 + 43,360) = 87136 (10944 + 32,520) = 43,416
7 (347776 + 347328) = 695,104 (87136 + 260,496) = 347,632
8 (2780416 + 2781056) = 5,561,472 (695,104 + 2085792) = 2,780,896
What questions could we ask about the whole/parts relations? What might be imputed by watching the ratios between the two columns?
9 (22245888 + 22247168) = 44,493,056 (5,561,472 + 16,678,464) = 22,238,400
10 (177972224 + 177907200) = 355,879,424 (44,493,056 + 133430400) = 177,923,456
11 (711888896+ 1423387648) = 2,135,276,544 (355,879,424 + 1067540736) = 1,423,420,160
12 (8,541,106,176 + 11,387,361,280) = 19,928,467,456 (2,135,276,544 + 8,540,520,960) = 10,675,797,504
13 (79,713,869,824 + 85,406,380,032) = 165,120,249,856 (19,928,467,456 + 64,054,785,024) = 83,983,252,480
176/84=2.09523809524 1376/680=2.02352941176 10944/5420=2.01918819188 87136/43416=2.0070020269 695104/347632=1.99953974318 19,928,467,456/10,675,797,504=1.86669590244
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Quiet Expansion of the Universe

Most recent update: August 2016
WORK-IN PROGRESS, EARLY DRAFT for the scientific-academic communities
There is a similar posting for the general public.
by Bruce Camber, New Orleans
*****************************************************************************************

Stephen Hawking rhetorically asks, “Where did the universe come from?” then he immediately answers this penultimate question about life: “The answer, as most people can tell you, is the big bang. Everything in existence, expanding exponentially in every direction, from an infinitely small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense point, creating a cosmos filled with energy and matter. But what does that really mean and where did it all begin?” Cf. the Ref. [1]

The big bang is still just a theory. And, of course, there are other possibilities. Notwithstanding, within this post, we focus on a very simple model that has only been explored by a small group of high school people (and others within our extended community). We ask, “Is it possible that the universe began with an infinitesimally small length, time, mass, and temperature and a relatively small charge? Yes, we use those numbers defined by Max Planck in 1899, the Planck base units, to begin.  It seems that we’ve been staring at these keys for a long time.

Might the mechanism for the expansion of a cell be a metaphor for the expansion of the universe? Could our universe be functionally based on the simplest mathematics, doubling each step of the way? Is our universe, in fact, highly ordered and totally relational?”

First principles. We postulate that the Planck scale is the unification of the four forces of nature with the unification of the five Planck base units with those constants that define each unit, and that this unification, all defined as working ratios, is uniquely differentiated within each doubling throughout the entire 200+ base-2 exponential notations from the first moment of creation to this moment, the current time and present day. It appears that all 200+ notations are dynamic, actively participating in the current definition of our universe. This postulation provides a working environment by which we hope to build a diversity of bridges from the Planck scale to all existing physical theories whereby each notation creates a very unique environment for predictive values.

We call this model the Quiet Expansion of the Universe, hereinafter, abbreviated QE.

We begin this study with the Planck Epoch, then attempt to justify reinterpreting the Grand Unification and Inflationary Epochs. The Electroweak Epoch begins the crossover which continues through the Quark Epoch and into the Hadron, Lepton and Electron Epochs. Thereafter, the QE will have so many bridges up from the Planck Epoch, it should become an expressway to the remaining epochs and definitions given within the big bang theory, hereinafter, abbreviated bbt.

The Planck base units are further defined by the speed of light (or special relativity), the gravitational constant (or general relativity), the reduced Planck constant (or ħ or quantum mechanics), the Coulomb constant (or ε0 or electric charge or electromagnetism), and the Boltzmann constant (or kB or of temperature). All are bound within this Planck scale; and, herein it is proposed to be the foundations for a highly-ordered, totally-relational universe. The key to our model is multiplication by 2, starting with the Planck base units. A nexus of transformation between the finite and the infinite is defined by the crossing lines at “0” within the images on the right.

Universe View
Each epoch of the Big Bang has a corresponding set of notations.
We question the first four epochs: The Planck Epoch, the Grand
Unification Epoch, and the Inflationary and Electroweak Epochs.
0-67-84-110
What is time? What is space?
What is finite? What is infinite?
Who was more correct, Newton or Leibniz?
0-55
The four key parts of the big bang theory that are being questioned represent an infinitesimal amount of time within the QE model, surely
not enough for the proposed events of those epochs.

Wilczek Wiki
In 2001 Frank Wilczek wrote a series of articles for Physics Today
(link embedded here) about the Planck base units. Up until
that point, this part of Planck’s work had been virtually ignored
by the academic-and-scientific community (for over 100 years).

We have many, many questions. We have hopes and dreams. If the QE numbers can withstand the scrutiny of the academic and scientific communities, and we can begin to grasp the finite nature of space and time, and we can open a larger discussion about the nature of the finite-infinite relation, just maybe the bbt will recede and take a new role as an important chapter in academic as well as human history.

This posting is a “very-very rough draft.” It not yet a first draft. Given the depth and breadth of the foundations upon which the big bang theory (bbt) currently rest, your comments while this posting is being refined, are most welcomed. If this embedded link does not open your email browser, my address is camber (at) bblu (dot) org (or click on Contact).

Those pivotal Planck calculations were done in 1899 by Max Planck. In December 2011 we were just beginning to learn about Planck and his calculations. We sought out experts and quickly found the work of Prof. Dr. Frank Wilczek (at that time  at MIT). With very few exceptions, it was not until Wilczek began writing a series of articles in 2001, Scaling Mt. Planck, (Physics Today), did anybody think those Planck numbers amounted to anything more than numerology. It would take another ten years before we would come along, naively doing our thing with our geometries and base-2 exponential notation.

Though most academics are familiar with Kees Boeke’s 1957 work (Cosmic View) using base-10, we were not. Most all our academic contacts made quick reference to it, yet they were still surprised to see our base-2 chart from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe. Some asked, “Why haven’t we’ve seen this before now?”  The others just thought it was more numerology akin to Dirac (link goes to a YouTube audio where Dirac explains in his own words).

We are confident that the proponents of the big bang have never considered the first 67 notations defined within this quiet expansion model.

This simple work of multiplying the Planck units by 2, and then each result by 2, over and over and over again is a bit tedious. If you were to do it, in just over 200 steps you would emerge at the Age of the Universe and the Observable Universe. You can follow the progression in any one of several charts. Base-2 exponential notation is what cells use. Other processes like chemical bonding and bifurcation theory have analogous dynamics.

These 200+ doublings have at various points been called: (1) archetypes, (2) clusters, (3) containers, (4) domains, (5) groups, (6) layers, (7) notations, (8) ratios, (9) sets or (10) steps. We believe that each captures a face of the functionality within the notation. We recognize that these Planck base units can be computed in many different ways. Eventually, in order to refine results, the reduced Planck constant may be used. The various values of gravity (G) can be tested. Important at this time is consistency and equivalence of methodologies across all calculations within all 200+ notations. Our initial goal is to create a simple working model that outlines the general working parameters and boundary conditions to give us a platform. Now we begin looking at the key critical ratios throughout the model with a hope that we may discern natural groups and patterns that might help us to judge the veracity of the model itself.

Within our web presence, Big Board-little universe, there is more background from our rather brief history.

Big-bang Theory Drowns Out Discussions

To learn as much as possible as quickly as possible, we’ve used Wikipedia’s summaries. Wikipedia’s goal is to represent the best current thinking of the thought leaders within the relevant scientific communities. The scientists who are most often quoted have lived within this theory throughout their professional careers. It is part of their intellectual being. Notwithstanding, we believe most all of their work can be absorbed within the QE. Questions are primarily raised about the Planck Epoch, the Grand Unification Epoch, the Inflationary Epoch and the Electroweak Epochs. Taken together, these three “epochs” represent less than a fraction of a fraction of a second within the QE model. And, with just a few tweaks, we believe some of this work and all the work within the subsequent epochs can be readily integrated.

The writers within the Wikipedia community overlap with those within these scientific communities. Wikipedia, constantly in the process of refining their writing, provides several summaries of the History of the Universe. All work based on observations and measurements has a place within the QE model. Our guess is that the interpretation of those observations and measurements will become richer and more informative when the QE parameters and boundary conditions are engaged.

In 1970 there were truly competing theories about the beginning of the universe. By 1990 the bbt had become dominant. In 2011 our little group of high school geometry people began to explore the interior structures of the tetrahedron and octahedron. Then we found within our tilings and tessellations, and then all those base-2 exponential notations from the Planck base units to the Age of the Universe and to the Observable Universe. That continuum appeared so simple, we first engaged it as an excellent STEM (Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics) tool. Yet, with further study and thought, it also seemed to challenge some of our basic commonsense assumptions about nature (the back story). As we studied our new little model, the bbt continued to solidify its dominance within the general culture at the same time we started to question it. We began to believe that the actual physics of the first moments of creation might be better defined by the simple mathematics of a quiet expansion, especially those first 67 notations. These 67 have never been recognized as such and certainly have not been discussed within academia. The great minds throughout the ages have been unaware of the 200+ base-2 notations, especially those first 67 notations. So mysterious are the 67, we began more actively to think about them and to make some postulations about their place and purpose.

Our first posting about this Quiet Expansion was a result of our naive, informal, and often idiosyncratic studies of the Planck base units, base-2 exponential notation, and an inherent geometry assumed (hypothesized, hypostatized, and/or imputed) to be within every scale (doubling, layer, notation, step, etc) throughout the universe. We have moved slowly. Having backed into the Planck base units from our simple exercises in geometry class, we were not at all sure of ourselves. So, after observing our results for a couple of years, we began asking the question, “Could this be a more-simple, more-inclusive model of the universe than the big bang theory?” Because we only have the beginnings of an outline of a model, we continued our quest and continued to ask more questions:

Who? What? Why? When? Where? How?

Who: The history of the Big Bang Theory (bbt) is highly documented. It is an intellectual cornerstone within experimental and theoretical physics, cosmology, and astrophysics.
What: To challenge the bbt appears foolhardy at best. Yet, there are many, many reasons to challenge it, but most of all because (1) it is overly complex and confusing, (2) it is not very good philosophy, and (3) it is very poor psychology.
Why: The first three key parts of the bbt, involving substantially less than a trillionth of a second, are based on hunches and a need to shoehorn data to support the model.

Wikipedia says, “Planck scale is beyond current physical theories; it has no predictive value. The Planck epoch is assumed (or theorized) to have been dominated by quantum effects of gravity.”

We say that the Planck scale is the starting point for the initial six notations (de facto defined by the bbt) and that these notations are shared by everything, everywhere in the universe. Painfully aware of the limitations of our vocabulary, these first notations are considered to be archetypal forms, structure and substance. Archetypal is used in the sense of the original pattern or model by which all things of the same type are representations, the prototype, or a perfect example. For more, see all of 67 encapsulating notations (opens in a new window or tab).

Both models have made key assumptions. We believe the QE model is internally more consistent, imaginative, and stimulating.

The key to the QE: More than just the bbt‘s four forces of nature within the Planck scale, we assume these four are encapsulated within all five Planck base units and the constants that define them, and that this unification is carried through all 201+ notations. And, as we have noted, the Planck base units are defined by length, time, mass, temperature and charge; and, these are further defined by the speed of light (or special relativity), the gravitational constant (or general relativity), the reduced Planck constant (or ħ or quantum mechanics), the Coulomb constant (or ε0 or electric charge or electromagnetism), and the Boltzmann constant (or kB or of temperature).

The Planck scale is not beyond logic, numbers, and conceptual integrity. Homogeneity, isotropy and simple logic rule. Yet, within the Quiet Expansion (QE) model, we have applied that simple logic somewhat arbitrarily by placing the Planck Temperature at the top of the scale, just beyond the 201st notation. It then goes down approaching Absolute Zero. We are ready to adjust it at any time when a more integrative logic prevails! Also, we are increasingly finding a simple relational logic between all the Planck base units. Of course, this logic will be revisited with every future analysis of the QE model.

Within the QE model, the Planck Charge, a Coulombs value, is taken as it is given. Within the bbt, the Planck Charge is ignored and the bbt value is postulated to be as large as possible. Their measurement is given in GeV units, one billion electron volts. Add 1016 zeroes to it and you have a charge unlike any other! It is a very grand assumption that truly requires a huge leap of faith!

To begin to understand all these numbers and their correlations, questions are asked, “Are these all non-repeating, never-ending numbers like Pi? Are all numbers that are non-repeating and never-ending somehow part of the infinite yet also the beginning of quantum mechanics?” The suggestion has been made that we carry out each of the Planck numbers at least 10 decimal places, and if need be, 100 decimal places, and possibly even 1000 decimal places, to see if patterns can be discerned.

The QE model holds that things are simple before complex and everything is related to everything. Imputed, hypostatized and/or hypothesized are pointfree vertices and simple geometries as the deep infrastructure that gives rise to the work on combinatorics, cellular automaton, cubic close packing, bifurcation theory (and the Feigenbaum’s constants), Langlands program, mereotopology (point-free geometry), the 80-known binary operations, and scalar field theory. Here are people working on theories and constructions of the simple, yet their concepts are anything but simple.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
When: In the very beginning…
Wikipedia says that the Planck epoch requires speculative proposals, a “New Physics” such as “…the Hartle–Hawking initial state, string landscape, string gas cosmology, and the ekpyrotic universe.” Each is a conceptually-rich, dense jungle of ideas. Cutting through that entanglement is only for the highly-motivated and academically astute. Most of us will just go on to the grand
unification epoch
, in search of a logical system that builds consistently upon itself.

About the bbt model, Wikipedia simply says, “The three forces of the Standard Model are unified.” Of course, the QE goes much further, however, first consider a bbt problem. Electromagnetism, gravitation, weak nuclear interaction, and strong nuclear interaction are most often related to relations defined above the 65th notation.

Wikipedia says, “Cosmic inflation expands space by a factor of the order of 1026 over a time of the order of 10−33 to 10−32 seconds.[1] The universe is supercooled from about 1027 down to 1022 kelvins.[6] The Strong Nuclear Force becomes distinct from the Electroweak Force.” [1] (Our emphasis) First, consider that the Planck Temperature is 1.41683×1032 Kelvin. The bbt appears to skip the cooling from 1032 to 1027 Kelvin and it uses  bubbly magic  to address what causes the cooling to 1022 Kelvin. Also, consider the amount of expansion and the short duration assumed in their statement above. To create that much space in that short of an interval would require light to travel so far beyond its normal speed, it would constitute the penultimate anomaly.

Also, because the bbt begins at the Planck Temperature, they truly need a supercooled concept. Within the Quiet Expansion model the temperatures from notations 1 through 102 are all superconducting, being well below the superconducting transition temperatures. Perhaps the very concept of temperature will become better understood as a result of our struggles to define a different model of the universe.

About this inflationary epoch, Wikipedia says, “The forces of the Standard Model have separated, but energies are too high for quarks to coalesce into hadrons, instead forming a quark-gluon plasma. These are the highest energies directly observable in experiment in the Large Hadron Collider.”

Within the QE, the quark-gluon plasma which requires 1012 Kelvin, is between notation 135 and 136,  9.6008×1011 Kelvin  to 1.92016×1012 Kelvin respectively. Notation 136 is 4.6965×10-3 seconds from the  space-time singularity. One second is between Notations 143 and 144. Also, the Kelvin scale is counter-intuitive in many ways. The temperature of the Sun is about 5,778 K. Within the QE, that is expressed between Notations 107 (3.5765×103 K ) and 108 (7153.178 K). The human temperature at 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit is 310.15 Kelvin which is between Notations 103 and 104 (447.073 K). Also, at Notation 103  the Planck Length is now .163902142 millimeters or 1.63902142×10-4 meters or about the size of a human egg.

The exacting nature of the correlations between the multiples of the Planck base units is just being explored for the first time. But, to say the least, within the QE everything everywhere is related through simple mathematics.

In Wikipedia, their category experts say, “The physics of the electroweak epoch is less speculative and much better understood than the physics of previous periods of the early universe. The existence of W and Z bosons has been demonstrated, and other predictions of electroweak theory have been experimentally verified.”

Finally the the bbt gives us something that isn’t incomplete or highly speculative. Yet, even with such assurance, the logic of the bbt is difficult to follow. Again, within the QE model the only duration that would allow for W and Z bosons is somewhere around notation 65. There is just not enough “conceptual” space and time for elementary particles and their effects.

Within this simple, highly-integrated progression,  the first measurement with a visceral meaning  is at Notation 32; the mass of the universe is 93.48 kilograms or about 206 pounds. By Notation 40 it is up to 2.39×104 kilograms (52 758.8 lbs or 27 tons. The universe is bulking up quickly and it is creating space and time as it goes.  Though we have some ideas about this mass, it should become more clear as we begin experimenting with the calculations of the Planck base units. We may also extend all the decimals out to at least ten places and begin to calculate more carefully each ratio within each notation and begin to do in-depth ratio analysis of these progressions.

Consider this unusual concept. Within every notation, the QE model aggregates base-8 pointfree vertices using scaling laws and dimensional analysis (recommended by Prof. Dr. Freeman Dyson). There are single line entries for both the base-2 and base-8 progressions within the horizontally-scrolled chart.

There are 10,633,823,966,279,326,983,230,456,482,242,756,608 pointfree vertices at the 41st notation. The base-2 simple doublings could be aggregating structure as groups or sets. Defined by the Planck base units, in the range 41-to-60, we hypothesize that these are the domains for archetypal relations and systems. There are 549,755,813,888 base-2 pointfree vertices at Notation 41 and 5,070,602,400,912,917,605,986,812,821,504 at Notation 104.

There are enormous possibilities for mathematical constructions where ratios manifest as the real reality of the universe. The entitive nature of things (above the 67th notations) is derivative; the ratio is the primarily real. In our world of subject-object thinking, the hyphen represents that ratio.

Big Bang Theory (bbt)

Planck epoch

Planck time:
<10−43 seconds
~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Planck Temperature:
1032 Kelvin
First key bbt error
Planck Energy:
1019 GeV
Second key bbt error

Grand
unification epoch

<10−36 seconds
~
1016 GeV
(gigaelectronvolts)

Inflationary epoch
Electroweak epoch

<10−33 s to <10−32 seconds
(QE syncs to bbt time.)
1028 K to 1022 Kelvin
~
Expansion: 1026 meters
Editor: “science fiction”
Third key bbt error
~

Quark epoch

Fourth error: >10−31 to
>10−12 seconds
1012 Kelvin
Notice there is a bbt/QE convergence

Hadron epoch

10−6 seconds to
10−1 seconds
1010 Kelvin to
109 Kelvin

Lepton epoch

1 second to
10 seconds
109 K
Note: QE temp higher

Photon epoch-Nucleosynthesis

10 seconds to
103 seconds to
1013 seconds
<380 ka
~
1011 Kelvin to
109 Kelvin to
103 Kelvin
10 MeV to
100 keV

~

Matter-dominated era

47 ka (47,000 years) to
10 Ga (10×109) years
~
104 Kelvin to
4 Kelvin

Recombination

380 ka (380,000 years)
~
4000 Kelvin

Dark Ages

380 ka to
150 Ma (Mega-annus) or
150 million years
~
4000 Kelvin to
60 Kelvin

Stelliferous Era

150 Ma
(150 million years)
100 Ga
(150 billion years)
60 Kelvin to
0.03 Kelvin

Reionization

~150 Ma to
1 Ga
~
>60 K to
19 K

Galaxy formation and evolution

1 Ga to 10 Ga
19 Kelvin to 4 Kelvin

Dark-energy-dominated era

>10 Ga
<4 K

Present time

13.8 Ga
2.7 Kelvin

Quiet Expansion (QE)

Notations 0-1
0 = Planck base units
Planck time:
5.39106×10−44 seconds
Notation 1: 1.0782−43 (s)
Notation 2: 2.156×10−43 (s)
Notation 0: 1.416×1032 Kelvin
Notation 1: 4.4×10-27 (K)
Notation 2: 8.8169×10-27 (K)
Notation 0: 1.8×10-18 Coulombs
Notation 1: 3.7511×10-18 (C)
Notation 2: 7.0523×10-18 (C)

Notations 7 to 31

Notation 2: 2.156×10−43 seconds
Notation 31: 1.157×10−34 (s)
7.0523×10-18 (C)
Notation 31: 4.02×10-9 (C)

Notations 32 to 40

Notation 32: 2.31×10−34 seconds
Notation 40: 5.927×10−32 (s)
Notation 32: 1.89×10-19 Kelvin
Notation 40: 2.42×10-17 (K)
Notation 32: 6.94×10-26 meters
Notation 40: 1.77×10-23 (m)
Notation 32: 8.05×10-9 Coulombs
Notation 40: 2.06×10-6 (C)

Notations 41 to 104

Notation 41: 1.18×10−31 seconds
Notation 104: 1.09×10−12 (s)
Notation 41: 4.84×10-17 Kelvin
Notation 104: 4.47×102 (K)
(310K = 98.33°F, 36.85° C)

Notation 105 to 142

Notation 105: 2.18×10−12 (s)
Notation 142: 3.0×10−1 (s)
Notation 105: 8.94×102 Kelvin
Notation 142: 6.14×1013 (K)

Notations 143 to 147

Notation 143: 6.01×10−1 (s)
Notation 147: 9.61 (s)
Notation 143: 2.45×1014 Kelvin
Notation 147: 3.93×1015 (K)

Notations 147 to 154 to
Notation 187

Notation 147: 9.6185 seconds
Notation 154: 1231.1 (s)
Notation 187: 1.05×1013 (s)
or 10,575,741,215,500 (s)
or 320± thousand years
Notation 147: 3.932×1015 Kelvin
Notation 154: 5.03×1017 (K)
Notation 187: 4.32×1027 (K)
Notation 147: 3.346×1026 (C)
Notation 154: 4.28×1028 (C)
Notation 187: 3.67×1038 (C)

Notations 184 to 201

Notation 184: 1,321,967,651,940 seconds or 41,919.31 years
Notation 201: 10 billion years
Notation 184: 5.4×1026 Kelvin
Notation 201: 7.0×1031 (K)

Notations 187

10,575,741,215,500 (s)
320± thousand years
Notation 187: 3.6×1038 (C)

Notations 187 to 196

Notations 187: 320,000+ years
Notation 196:
171.2± million years
5,414,779,502,320,000 seconds
Notations 187: 4.3×1027 Kelvin
Notations 196: 2.2×1030 (K)

Notations 187 to 204+

Notation 196:
171.2± million years
Notation 204+:
Distant future
Notations 196: 2.2×1030 (K)
Notation 204: 1.416×1032 (K)

Notations 187 to 189

Notation 187: 1.05×1013 seconds
or 320± thousand years to
Notation 189: 1.3± million years
Notation 187: 4.32×1027 Kelvin
Notation 189: 1.72×1028 (K)

Notations 187 to
Notation 201+

Notation 189: 1.3± million years
Notation 201: 10 billion years

Notations 187 to
Notation 201+

Notation 201: 10 billion years
Notation 201: 7.08×1031 Kelvin

Notation 201+

Notation 201: 13.8 billion years
Notation 201: 7.08×1031 Kelvin
   — most active edit area—

Here is the deep infrastructure of the universe where the simple mathematics of ratios between space, time, charge, mass and temperature create real realities within every notation. We postulate that these ratios are the “really real.” Within the continuum of charge here is the so-called dark energy within notations 185 to 200 and with the continuum of mass there is the dark matter. If this model is ever validated, perhaps it’ll be seen that both are deep energy and deep matter of the universe, the manifestations of really real mathematical ratios.

The bbt’s Quark Epoch generalizes 63 of the QE notations, from 41 to 104. These notations within the QE model are foundational so perhaps this comparison to Quark Epoch is a key. Consider the estimated requirement for temperature. The bbt epochs can not begin until the temperature is cool enough. Given that temperature requirement, within the QE model, the Quark Epoch would not begin until up-and-around Notation 136 where the temperature has finally risen to 1.9201×1012 Kelvin. If that is the right range, as suggested by proponents of the bbt, less than a second has transpired, the universe has a diameter of about 874 square miles and a mass of about 1.896×1032 kilograms.

Within the QE model from around Notations 65 to 69 is the transition from the small scale to the human scale. This “human scale” is the middle third of the 201 notations, i.e. 67-to-134. Even though two-thirds of the way through the 201 doublings, less than a second has transpired from the start.

In the Quark Epoch the bbt and QE begin to cross paths and overlap. Wikipedia says, “Quarks are bound into hadrons. Over the hadron epoch, the process of baryogenesis results in an elimination of anti-hadrons (baryon asymmetry).” As noted within Wikipedia, some of these perceptions come directly out of the laboratory, such as CERN in Geneva, where this phenomenon has been observed. So, other than the improbable placement within the time/temperature curve, all processes herein after become readily integrated within the QE model.

Let us take stock of where we are.  Even though the Quark Epoch of the bbt seems to  overlap and begin to become simpatico within the QE, there are fundamental logic and conceptual problems ahead.

Let us take stock of where we are.  Even though the Quark Epoch of the bbt seems to  overlap and begin to become simpatico within the QE, there are fundamental logic and conceptual problems ahead.

A key question within the QE model is, “What is a notation?”  All 200+ are also known as an archetype, cluster, doubling, group, layer, set, and/or step. Each word is perspectival.  Each notation is dynamic, always in the process of being defined, right up to the current time within our current notation.

Space and time are local per notation and all “past” is an imprint on the universe that literally defines it beingness right now, thus no time asymmetry.

What does that mean?  Each notation has an active role right now in defining who we are and what this universe is here and now. Each notation has an active role in defining all other notations.

Today, right now, all of these notations are actively defining the now.  We are imprinting on the universe right now.  The past is not past; it is an imprint on the universe.  There is only the Now, only right now, only today.

Each notation has an active role in defining who we are and what this universe is; and, each notation has an active role in defining all other notations. Today, right now, all of these notations actively define humanity or the human scale (67-to-134), must therefore be something like the archetypes of forms and functions (notations 1-to-67) that define our deeper beingness. The notations from 134-to-200 define our planetary and galactic systems and this is where most of the work of those physicists, cosmologists, and astrophysicists have worked.

In just a few more notations, between 142 and 143, the universe is at the one second mark. This measurement is most often used to determine the speed of light. Yet, as noted in earlier postings, within every notation, the Planck length divided by the multiple of the Planck Time renders an approximation of the speed of light. It is just commonsense when we see that the speed of light plays prominently in the definitions of Planck Length and Planck Time.

The question to be answered, “What is the meaning of temperature? …within the bbt? Within the QE model, we impute that it is the total temperature throughout the area defined by the notation (or cluster, container, domain, doubling, group, layer, or step). This measurement within the Hadron Epoch within the bbt is lower than it is within the QE. There is a natural correlation between all these numbers within the QE simply because they start with the same definitional characteristics (the Planck base units) and the evolution of those numbers using base-2 exponential notation. The ratio of length to temperature renders 7.3322+ ratio. [Editor’s note: Please double-check this figure. Then check it again.] That result is currently being analyzed, space-to-temperature or kelvin per meters.

In 1972 George Ellis and Stephen Hawking began to explore the boundary conditions that define our universe between 10-13 centimeters (elementary particles) and 1028 cm, the assumed radius of the universe. They did not approach the Planck base units which would have expanded their range to 1.616199×10−35 meters (Planck Length) and then it would have tucked them in at about 5.1942×1025 meters according to current best guesses regarding the Age of the Universe.

Earlier it was observed that the big bang is not good philosophy and it is bad psychology. Philosophy is taken as a study of first principles and systems, the universals and constants that create the boundary conditions as well as the continuity equations that bind our universe together. Since 1972, especially with the very key question about the very nature of the first microseconds, the bbt has not progressed very far. Their Planck epoch is still mysterious. It is bad psychology for that very reason. It is so disjointed, so out of touch with anything human, it de facto promotes a certain form of nihilism.

Theories should have elegance, beauty, coherence, and simplicity. Children should be able to begin to understand. And with the QE, children quickly begin to understand 2 times 2. We just have to carry it out a few more places for them.

Conclusions: What does it all mean?
What are the implications if the Quiet Expansion is true?

For us all:
1. The finite-infinite relation is the key and requires more study.
2. The universe is finite, quantized, and derivative. Space and time are also finite, quantized, and derivative.
3. The infinite is continuity, symmetry and harmony giving rise to order, relations and harmony.
4. There are, therefore, natural laws, ethics, and values.

For the big bang theory:
1. All the actual measurements and observational work that have gone into the big bang theory (bbt) are supported by the quiet expansion.
2. All the major theoretical constructs of the bbt including and after the Quark Epoch are supported by the quiet expansion. There are adjustments of the time scale in which things occur, yet these are minor.
3. The definitions of the Grand unification epoch, Inflationary epoch, and Electroweak epoch will be upgraded substantially.

For the Quiet Expansion (QE):
1. The continued expansion of the universe is fully supported within the quiet expansion.
2. There are just over 200 notations that define the universe.
3. These notations are all active, functional, and necessarily build on each other.
4. These notations will also be defined as:
•   archetypes
•   clusters
•   containers
•   domains
•   doublings
•   groups
•   layers
•   ratios
•   sets
•   steps

5. As an archetype, each notation serves specific purposes in defining the textures and substance of the universe determined by the ranges within the Planck base units.

The future, both short-term and long-term: Our “To Do” List.
1. Run the ratios: There is a meaningful ratio between each of the five Planck base units within each of the notations. Volunteers? Want to help?
2. Double-check the numbers. Just yesterday there was a question about the Coulombs doublings. The simple mathematics of every doubling has to be correct.
3. Study the Mass” progression from 0 to 201 and intuit the meaning of mass given by just the pointfree vertices throughout the twenty notations from 50 to 70. Formulate key critical questions? What are the ratios saying?

***

Disclaimer: Our charts and discussion are our first time to make a comparative analysis between the big bang theory and our Quiet Expansion. Silly errors are inevitable. We are neophytes, not scholars, within these fields, so please point out any of our failures with logic, math, and physics. We will be most grateful.

This ends the first story about two very different models of the universe. Of course, it is a story that is to be continued.
Universe History of the Universe

Footnotes and endnotes:

The first working title of this posting was “Can A Quiet Expansion Challenge the Big Bang?” which was deemed too confrontational. The more important question was, “How did it all begin and what does it mean?” That change was made on Friday morning, June 17, 2016.

Cf. 1 Big bang theory: The world-renown Cambridge University physicist, Stephen Hawking, is the leading spokesperson for the big bang. He has become a rock star among scientists because he has been so successful as its primary advocate. Within his May 2016 PBS-TV series, Genius, he asks, “Where did the universe come from? The answer, as most people can tell you, is the big bang. Everything in existence, expanding exponentially in every direction,from an infinitely small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense point, creating a cosmos filled with energy and matter. But what does that really mean and where did it all begin?” His confidence also exudes from his 1988, best-selling book, A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes, and even from his foundational writing in 1973 (co-authored with Cambridge colleague, George F. R. Ellis) the highly-technical book, The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time.

Are space-and-time unbounded or bounded? If bounded, is our universe a container universe? Are the Planck base units and all the dimensionless constants part of the definitions of the boundaries between the finite and the infinite?

Within the current bbt analysis gravitational waves arise from within their inflationary period. The bbt thought leaders ascribe a much faster-than-light expansion just after the big bang. And, that begs the question: What are the preconditions of superluminal events and motion? There haven’t been any answers since 1902 when Jacobus Kapteyn made his initial observations, since the 1983 “superluminal workshop” at Jodrell Bank Observatory, and since the subsequent studies of microquasars, their accretion disks and such phenomenon as magnetorotational instability. It is all a very special language, logic and reality; the observational results are well-defined; yet, the most-penetrating conclusions are pending.

StephenHawking
Stephen Hawking as seen in the opening of the PBS-TV series, Genius with Stephen Hawking, first aired in May 2016.

How did the universe begin? And, what does it mean? Could a Quiet Expansion impact the Big Bang?

Most recent update: August 2016 (just two [1] [2] referencing pages)
WORK-IN-PROGRESS -FIRST DRAFT for the GENERAL PUBLIC.
There is a very similar work-in-progress for the scientific-academic community
by Bruce Camber, New Orleans
**************************************************************************************

With all the chaos, disinformation and uncertainty in our little world, those old penultimate questions seem quite relevant, “How did this universe and our life begin? What does it mean?”  Did it come into existence, as many scientists currently believe and world-renown physicist, Stephen Hawking, answers,  “…expanding exponentially in every direction, from an infinitely small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense point, creating a cosmos filled with energy and matter“?  Cf. Ref. [1]

Are there any other possibilities?

Of course, there are. But here we focus on a model that has only been explored by a small group of high school people and others within their extended community. Couldn’t the question also be asked, “Might it be possible that the universe began with an infinitesimal length, time, mass, and temperature (and a rather small charge), then expanded like the cells of life, doubling each step of the way?”

Is our universe, in fact, highly ordered and totally relational? Of course, given the state of world affairs today, the quick answer would be “No.” Yet, if we were able to answer, “Yes,” perhaps there are things we could learn from the universe to solve some of our world’s most vexing problems.

With that goal in mind, let us begin by using the old journalistic framework:
“Who? What? Why? When? Where? And, how?”

Universe View

Planck base units are the gateway between the finite and infinite.
Each epoch of the Big Bang has a corresponding set of notations.

Frank Wilczek

In 2001 Frank Wilczek wrote a series of articles for Physics Today
(link embedded here) about the Planck base units. It took
over 100 years for the academic-and-scientific community
to embrace some of Max Planck’s most important work
.

Who is who: On one side you have the scholars of the Big Bang theory (hereinafter referred to as bbt) including many Nobel laureates, and on the other side are a few high school math and science teachers and their students. The scholars’ bbt is highly documented. It is an intellectual cornerstone within experimental and theoretical physics, cosmology,  astrophysics, and even ontology. The high school work has been primarily driven by this author and it has had virtually no peer review.
What: For us to challenge the bbt appears foolhardy at best. Yet, there are many, many reasons to challenge it, but most of all because (1) it is overly complex and confusing, (2) it is not very good philosophy, (3) it is very poor psychology, and (4) possibly, it’s actually wrong about its most-basic assumptions.
Why: The first three key parts of the bbt, involving substantially less than a trillionth of a second, are based on hunches and a need to shoehorn data to support the model. If we get a better model, we might be able to beget a better life.
When: Now, today. These models are more influential than we know.
Where: Everywhere. It seems that we are so intimately connected, a change in our model, changes everything immediately. Perhaps we can impact the various manifestations of insanity within our cultures.
HowOur working premise begins with what is known as a  space-time singularity, the dynamic transformational nexus between the finite and infinite where there is a complete unification of all the basic forces of nature and the Planck base units (aka Planck scale). We postulate that this unification is extended through dynamic working ratios throughout all 200+ notations from the first moment of creation to the current time and present day. We further postulate that this working premise creates an environment to build a panoply of bridges from the Planck scale to all current well-established physical theories whereby each notation is a domain for unique predictive values.

We call our very simple model the Quiet Expansion (hereinafter we use the abbreviation, QE).

To explain such a position requires a detailed analysis and comparison between the big bang (and its many facets) and all the details created within each notation of the QE (a very large horizontally-scrolled file).  We are also writing it up for the academic community.  That analysis titled, Quiet Expansion of the Universe, is based on this posting so there is some repetition.

Not too many people question the big bang theory (bbt). Quite obviously, we do. Yet, it was only in September 2014 did we publicly raise questions about it. Given all the work that has gone into the big bang theory over so many years, only a fool would dare challenge it.

So, such is life; each of us must sometime play the fool.

This posting is still a “very-very rough draft.” Given the depth and breadth of the foundations upon which the big bang theory (bbt) currently rests, your comments while this posting is being refined, are most welcomed. If this embedded link does not open your email browser, my address is camber (at) bblu (dot) org or click on Contact.

The key to our model is multiplication by 2, starting with the Planck base units. It begins at the nexus of transformation between the finite and the infinite, defined by the crossing lines at “0” in the first image above on the right.

When we began in December 2011, we knew nothing about those pivotal Planck calculations done in 1899 by Max Planck. We hardly knew his name. We asked everybody who seemed to know something about the Planck numbers, “Can we multiply each value by 2?” We sought out experts and quickly found the work of Prof. Dr. Frank Wilczek (at that time at MIT). With very few exceptions, it was not until Wilczek began writing a series of articles in 2001, Scaling Mt. Planck, (Physics Today), did anybody think those Planck numbers amounted to anything more than numerology.

Though it seemed that most everybody was familiar with Kees Boeke’s 1957 work (Cosmic View) using base-10, we were not. Most all our academic contacts made quick reference to it, yet were still surprised to see our base-2 chart from the Planck Length to the Observable Universe. A few suggested that to multiply by 2 was no better than multiplying by 10. Some thought it was a frivolous exercise. But because we had our geometries that went right down to that scale, we proceeded. Our work began in December 2011 by multiplying the Planck Length by 2, and then each result by 2, over and over and over again. It was straightforward, a bit tedious, but relatively simple. When we discovered that there are only 200+ doublings to get to the Age of the Universe and the Observable Universe, we couldn’t believe it. Though hard to believe, it’s true. That simple math, called “base-2 exponential notation,” is what cells do.  It’s a bit like chemical bonding. Another way to envision these dynamics may well be bifurcation theory.

In December 2014 we included Planck Time within our chart. In February 2015 we included the other three Planck base units.

By the time one reaches the estimated Age of the Universe, this model has encapsulated every moment of time since the very beginning, all within 200+ “somethings” that have at various points been called: (1) clusters, (2) containers, (3) domains, (4) doublings, (5) groups, (6) layers, (7) notations, (8) ratios, (9) sets or (10) steps. The result is, by definition, an entirely-ordered universe. When we stopped looking at the numbers individually, we began to realize each was in an active relation (a ratio) with the others within each notation. Then, we began to see this multiplicity of ratios as living, dynamic relations struggling to be recognized. As long as we were consistent in using the same value structure to determine each number, these ratios became the penultimate determinants of a given reality within a given notation.

Within our web presence, Big Board-little universe, there is more background about our rather brief history.

Big-bang Theory Drowns Out Discussions

To attempt to come up to speed, to learn more about it all as quickly as possible, we’ve been using Wikipedia’s summaries. Wikipedia’s goal is to represent the best current thinking of the thought leaders within the relevant scientific communities. These scientists have lived within this theory throughout their professional careers. It is part of their intellectual being. Notwithstanding, we believe most all of their work can be absorbed within the QE. Our primary questions are about the first four and most fundamental periods which they call “Epochs.” Taken together, these four epochs represent less than a fraction-of-a-fraction of a second within the QE model. With just little tweaks, we believe most all their work within the subsequent epochs can be readily integrated.

The writers within the Wikipedia community overlap with those within these scientific communities. Wikipedia, constantly in the process of refining their writing, provides several summaries of the History of the Universe. Work based on observations and measurements has a place within the QE and our guess is that the interpretation of those observations and measurements will become richer and more informative when the QE parameters and boundary conditions are engaged.

In 1970 there were competing theories about the beginning of the universe. By 1990 the bbt had become dominant. In 2011 our little group of high school geometry people began to explore the interior structures of the tetrahedron and octahedron and that is when we found within our tilings and tessellations, just over 201 base-2 exponential notations from the Planck base units to the Age of the Universe and to the Observable Universe. That continuum appeared so simple, we first engaged it as an excellent STEM (Science-Technology-Engineering-Mathematics) tool. Yet, with further study and thought, it also seemed to challenge some of our basic commonsense assumptions about nature (the back story). As we studied our new little model, the bbt continued to solidify its dominance within the general culture; nevertheless, we started to question it. We began to believe that the actual physics of the first moments of creation might be better defined by the simple mathematics of a quiet expansion, especially the first 67 notations. Those 67 have never been recognized as such and certainly have not been discussed within academia. The great minds throughout the ages have not been aware of the 201+ base-2 notations, especially those first 67 notations. So mysterious are the 67, we began more actively to think about them and to make some postulations about their place and purpose.

Our first posting about this Quiet Expansion was a result of our naive, informal, and often idiosyncratic studies of the Planck Base Units, base-2 exponential notation, and an inherent geometry assumed to be within every doubling throughout the universe. We have moved slowly. Having backed into the Planck base units from our simple exercises in a high school geometry class, we were not at all sure of ourselves. So, after observing our results for a couple of years, we began asking the question, “Could this be a more-simple, more-inclusive model of the universe than the big bang theory?” Because we only have the beginnings of an outline of a model, we have continued our quest and continue to ask more questions, primary among them,  “If space and time are finite, then what is infinite?” Throughout recorded history, the infinite has been described as perfect. So, we began thinking about perfections in mathematics and science. As a result, our first answer to that question: (1) Continuity. Simple continuity creates every manifestation of order (equations). (2) Symmetry. Simple symmetries define simple relations. Complex symmetries define complex relations. (3) Dynamics. Perhaps the best description of a dynamic moment is captured by harmonic analysis. There appears to be layers of perfection based on the interactions of these three faces of perfection.

Here it seems, is the very basis for natural law, ethics, value and more.

The QE model holds that things are simple before complex; and “everything is related to everything.” Hypothesized are simple geometries, a deep infrastructure that gives rise to the work within these leading intellectual studies of our time: combinatorics, cellular automaton, cubic close packing, bifurcation theory (and the Feigenbaum’s constants), the Langlands program, mereotopology (point-free geometry), binary operations (80-known), and scalar field theory. Here are people working on theories and constructions of the simple, yet their concepts are anything but simple.

Consider this unusual-yet-very-important concept. Within every notation, the QE model aggregates what is called “base-8 pointfree vertices” using scaling laws and dimensional analysis. That insight came from a most prominent theoretical physicist, Prof. Dr. Freeman Dyson of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton (Einstein’s old hangout). There are single line entries for both the base-2 and base-8 progressions within the horizontally-scrolled chart. At the 41st notation there are 10,633,823,966,279,326,983,230,456,482,242,756,608 pointfree vertices. It takes just four vertices to make a tetrahedron. It takes six to make an octahedron. With a quintillion-quintillion vertices, a huge, possibly-quite complex, infrastructure necessarily evolves. Perhaps the base-2 simple doublings could be aggregating base-8 structures as groups or sets. Further defined by the Planck base units, in the range 41-to-60, we hypothesize that these are the domains for archetypal relations and systems.

There are 549,755,813,888 base-2 pointfree vertices at Notation 41 and 5,070,602,400,912,917,605,986,812,821,504 at Notation 104. That is more than enough groups and sets to create the diversity of atomic, chemical, and biological structures that define our universe and life. Again, there is more detailed analysis within that article for the scientific-academic community (also referenced in the header).

Here it would appear is the deep infrastructure of the universe where the simple mathematics of ratios between space, time, charge, mass and temperature create real realities within every notation.  The ratios are called, the really real. Within the continuum of charge here is the so-called dark energy within notations 185 to 200 and with the continuum of mass there is the dark matter. If we ever have a chance, we’ll rename both as the deep energy and deep matter of the universe, the manifestations of really real mathematical ratios.

Within the bbt there is what is called the Quark Epoch. It generalizes 63 of the QE notations, from 41 to 104. These notations within the QE model are so foundational, this comparison to Quark Epoch is a key. Within the bbt this Quark Epoch cannot begin until the temperature is cool enough. Given the bbt’s temperature requirement, within the QE model, the Quark Epoch would not begin until up-and-around Notation 136 where the temperature has finally risen to 1.9201×1012 Kelvin. If that is the right range, as suggested by proponents of the bbt, less than a second has transpired, the universe has a diameter of about 874 square miles and a mass of about 1.896×1032 kilograms. The Sun is estimated to be 1.989×1030 kilograms. Fascinating, isn’t it?

Our naïve-but-playful question, “How can the mass of the universe within just 874 square miles be larger than our sun?”

The simple logic of the QE model causes us to stop and ponder, What is mass?  Is it weight in kilograms or is it a working ratio of energy and other dimensionless constants that are expressed as weight, density, and force. This major subject is addressed further and will be a key focus for a long time.

Within the QE model from around Notations 65 to 69 is the transition from the small scale to the human scale. This “human scale” is the middle third of the 201 notations, i.e. 67-to-134. Even though two-thirds of the way through the 201 doublings, less than a second has transpired from the start.

It is all quite fascinating. And it all demands a new logic about the universe, space and time.

— most active edit area—

Let us take stock of where we are.  Even though the Quark Epoch of the bbt seems to  overlap and begin to become simpatico within the QE, there are fundamental logic and conceptual problems ahead.

A key question within the QE model is, “What is a notation?”  All 200+ are also known as an archetype, cluster, doubling, group, layer, set, and/or step. Each word is perspectival.  Each notation is dynamic, always in the process of being defined, right up to the current time within our current notation.

Space and time are local per notation and all “past” is an imprint on the universe that literally defines it beingness right now, thus there is no time asymmetry.

What does that mean?  Each notation has an active role right now in defining who we are and what this universe is here and now. Each notation has an active role in defining all other notations.

Today, right now, all of these notations are actively defining the now.  We are imprinting on the universe right now.  The past is not past; it is an imprint on the universe.  There is only the Now, only right now, only today.

Humanity or the human scale seems to be defined between notations 67-to-134, but the current notation is 200+.  Therefore, these notations must be something like the archetypes of forms and functions (notations 1-to-67) that define our deeper beingness. The notations from 134-to-200 define our planetary and galactic systems and these are the notations where most of the work of the bbt physicists, cosmologists, and astrophysicists work.

In just a few more notations, between 142 and 143, the universe is at the one second mark. This measurement is most often used to determine the speed of light. Yet, as noted in earlier postings, within every notation, the multiple of the Planck length divided by the multiple of the Planck Time renders an approximation of the speed of light. Though commonsense when we see that the speed of light plays prominently in the definitions of Planck Length and Planck Time, it gives each notation a special substantiation.

The question to be answered, “What is the meaning of temperature? …within the bbt? Within the QE model, we impute that it is the total temperature throughout the area defined by the notation (or cluster, container, domain, doubling, group, layer, or step). This measurement within the Hadron Epoch within the bbt is lower than it is within the QE model. There is a natural correlation between all these numbers within the QE simply because they start with the same definitional characteristics (the Planck base units) and the evolution of those numbers using base-2 exponential notation. The ratio of length to temperature renders 7.3322+ ratio. That result is currently being analyzed, space-to-temperature or kelvin per meters.

In 1972 George Ellis and Stephen Hawking began to explore the boundary conditions that define our universe between 10-13 centimeters (elementary particles) and 1028 cm, the assumed radius of the universe.  They did not approach the Planck base units which would have expanded their range to 1.616199×10−35 meters (Planck Length) and then it would have tucked them in at about 5.1942×1025 meters according to current best guesses regarding the Age of the Universe.

Earlier it was observed that the big bang is not good philosophy and it is bad psychology. Philosophy is taken as a study of first principles and systems, the universals and constants that create the boundary conditions as well as the continuity equations that bind our universe together. Since 1972, especially with the very key question about the very nature of the first microseconds, the bbt has not progressed very far. Their Planck epoch is still mysterious. It is bad psychology for that very reason. It is so disjointed, so out of touch with anything human, it de facto promotes a certain form of nihilism.

Theories should have elegance, beauty, coherence, and simplicity. Children should be able to begin to understand. And with the QE, children quickly begin to understand 2 times 2. We just have to carry it out a few more places for them.

What are the implications if the Quiet Expansion is true?
For us all:
1. The finite-infinite relation is the key and requires more study.
2. The universe is finite, quantized, and derivative. Space and time are also finite, quantized, and derivative.
3. The infinite is continuity, symmetry and harmony giving rise to order, relations and harmony.
4. There are, therefore, natural laws, ethics, and values.

For the big bang theory:
1. All the actual measurements and observational work that have gone into the big bang theory (bbt) are supported by the quiet expansion.
2. All the major theoretical constructs of the bbt including and after the Quark Epoch are supported by the quiet expansion. There are adjustments of the time scale in which things occur, yet these are minor.
3. The definitions of the Grand Unification Epoch, Inflationary Epoch, and Electroweak Epoch will be upgraded substantially.

For the Quiet Expansion (QE):
1. The continued expansion of the universe is fully supported within the quiet expansion.
2. There are just over 200 notations that define the universe.
3. These notations are all active, functional, and necessarily build on each other.
4. These notations will also be defined as:
•   archetypes
•   clusters
•   containers
•   domains
•   doublings
•   groups
•   layers
•   ratios
•   sets
•   steps

5. As an archetype, each notation serves specific purposes in defining the textures and substance of the universe.

The future, both short-term and long-term: Our “To Do” List.
1. Run the ratios: There is a meaningful ratio between each of the five Planck base units within each of the notations. Volunteers?
2. Double-check the numbers. Just yesterday there was a question about the Coulombs doublings. The simple mathematics of every doubling has to be correct.
3. Study the Mass” progression from 0 to 201 and intuit the meaning of mass given by just the pointfree vertices throughout the twenty notations from 50 to 70. Formulate key critical questions? What are the ratios saying?

***

Disclaimer: Our charts and discussion are our first time to make a comparative analysis between the big bang theory and our Quiet Expansion. Silly errors are inevitable. We are neophytes, not scholars, within these fields, so please point out any of our failures with logic, math, and physics. We will be most grateful.

This ends the first story about  two very different models of the universe.  Of course, it is a story that is to be continued.
Universe History of the Universe

Footnotes and endnotes:

The first working title of this posting was “Can A Quiet Expansion Challenge the Big Bang?” which was deemed too confrontational. The more important questions were, “How did it all begin and what does it mean?” That change was made on Friday morning, June 17, 2016.

Cf. 1 Big bang theory: The world-renown Cambridge University physicist, Stephen Hawking, is the leading spokesperson for the big bang. He has become a rock star among scientists because he has been so successful as its primary advocate. Within his May 2016 PBS-TV series, Genius, he asks rhetorically, “Where did the universe come from? The answer, as most people can tell you, is the big bang. Everything in existence, expanding exponentially in every direction,from an infinitely small, infinitely hot, infinitely dense point, creating a cosmos filled with energy and matter. But what does that really mean and where did it all begin?” His confidence also exudes from his 1988, best-selling book, A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes, and even from his foundational writing in 1973 (co-authored with Cambridge colleague, George F. R. Ellis) the highly-technical book, The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time.

Are space-and-time unbounded or bounded? If bounded, is our universe a container universe? Are the Planck base units and all the dimensionless constants part of the definitions of the boundaries between the finite and the infinite?

Within the current bbt analysis gravitational waves arise from within their inflationary period. The bbt thought leaders ascribe a much faster-than-light expansion just after the big bang. And, that begs the question: What are the preconditions of superluminal events and motion? There haven’t been any answers since 1902 when Jacobus Kapteyn made his initial observations, since the 1983 “superluminal workshop” at Jodrell Bank Observatory, and since the subsequent studies of microquasars, their accretion disks and such phenomenon as magnetorotational instability.  It is all a very special language, logic and reality; the observational results are well-defined; yet, the most-penetrating conclusions are pending.

Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking as seen in the opening of the PBS-TV series, Genius with Stephen Hawking, first aired in May 2016.

199-204

Notations 199 to 204 of 200+
Our little universe is still expanding.
199 200 201 <-Steps->
202 203 204
4.331×1016.s.* 8.663×1016.s.* 1.732×1017.s.* T(seconds) 3.4654×1017.s.* Age of the Universe
1.298×1024.km 2.597×1024.km 5.194×1024.km L(meters) 1.038×1025.km 2.077×1025.km 4.155×1025.km
1.748×1049kg 3.497×1049kg 6.995×1050kg M(kilograms) 1.399×1050kg 2.798×1050kg 5.596×1050kg
1.506×1042C 3.013×1042C 6.027×1042C C(Coulombs) 1.205×1043C 2.411×1043C 4.822×10431C
1.77×1031 K 3.542×1031 K 7.084×1031 K T(Kelvin) 1.416×1030 K PLANCK TEMPERATURE
2.008×1059 4.017×1059 8.034×1059 B2Vertices 1.606×1060 3.213×1060 6.427×1060
3.319×10181 2.655×10182 2.124×10183 ScalingV 1.699×10184 1.087×10185 8.702×10185
1 Notation 199: 43,318,236,018,400,000 seconds (2.7 billion years)
2 Notation 200: 86,636,472,036,800,000 seconds (5.4 billion years)
3 Notation 201: 173,272,944,073,600,000 seconds (10.8 billions years)
4 Notation 202: 346,545,888,147,200,000 seconds (21.6 billion years)Discussion: The Fullness of Time. The first billion years of the universe becomes two billion years within the next notation, four at the next, and eight at the next. If time is imputed to be discrete and quantized, the aggregate of all notations must be added to determine the actual first eon. There are 31,556,926,000,000,000 seconds in an EON. That would seem to be between notations 198 and 199. But, if time is discrete, it would be the sum of every prior notation so it would come within the notations 197 to 198.

That same logic would apply to the Age of the Universe in seconds. Notation 201 is 173,272,944,073,600,000 seconds or 10.8 billion years. The sum total of all notations from the Planck Time to the 201 notation is one Planck Time unit less than 173,272,944,073,600,000 seconds. We should round up! So, the universe today is within the earliest part of notation 201 using 13.8± billion years for the Age of the Universe.

Discussion: How many seconds old is the universe? Somewhere around 435.48 quintillion seconds. Each day adds another 86,400 seconds. Each year adds approximately 31.55 million seconds.

Basic math: There are 31.5 quintillion seconds in a billion years multiplied by 13.8 gives us our 435.48 quintillion years.

Notation, Exponentiation, Vertex Counts for B2 and Scaling Vertices: From notations 169 to 200+ the actual number of vertices is stored in its own page which can be accessed by clicking here.